Mississippi

State of Mississippi
Flag of MississippiState seal of Mississippi
FlagSeal
Nickname(s): "The Magnolia State", "The Hospitality State"
Motto(s): Virtute et Armis
State song(s): "Go, Mississippi"
Map of the United States with Mississippi highlighted
Official languageEnglish
DemonymMississippian
Capital
(and largest city)
Jackson
Largest metroGreater Jackson
AreaRanked 32nd
 • Total48,430 sq mi
(125,443 km2)
 • Width170 miles (275 km)
 • Length340 miles (545 km)
 • % water3%
 • Latitude30° 12′ N to 35° N
 • Longitude88° 06′ W to 91° 39′ W
PopulationRanked 34th
 • Total2,984,100 (2017 est.)[1]
 • Density63.5/sq mi  (24.5/km2)
Ranked 32nd
 • Median household income$40,037[2] (51s/t)
Elevation
 • Highest pointWoodall Mountain[3][4][5]
807 ft (246.0 m)
 • Mean300 ft  (90 m)
 • Lowest pointGulf of Mexico[4]
Sea level
Before statehoodMississippi Territory
Admission to UnionDecember 10, 1817 (20th)
GovernorPhil Bryant (R)
Lieutenant GovernorTate Reeves (R)
LegislatureMississippi Legislature
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. Senators
U.S. House delegation3 Republicans
1 Democrat (list)
Time zoneCentral: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166US-MS
AbbreviationsMS, Miss.
Websitewww.ms.gov
Mississippi state symbols
Flag of Mississippi.svg
Seal of Mississippi (2014–present).svg
Coat of arms of Mississippi.svg
Living insignia
Bird
Butterfly
Fish
FlowerMagnolia
Insect
MammalWhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
Reptile
Tree
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
Colorsred and blue
DanceClogging
FoodSweet potato
GemstoneEmerald
MineralGold
RockGranite
Shell
SloganFirst Flight (unofficial)
State route marker
Mississippi state route marker
State quarter
Mississippi quarter dollar coin
Released in 2002
Lists of United States state symbols

Mississippi (i/ (About this sound listen)) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most extensive and 32nd most populous of the 50 United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, and Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of approximately 175,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city.

The state is heavily forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, which is the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.

Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A largely rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, and median household income.[6][7][8] The state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States.[9]

Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U.S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, and before the American Civil War that population was composed largely of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws. In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level.[10]

In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U.S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local, state and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era.

Etymology

The state's name is derived from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi ("Great River").

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mississippi
አማርኛ: ሚሲሲፒ
Ænglisc: Mississippi
العربية: مسيسيبي
aragonés: Mississippi
Avañe'ẽ: Misisipi
Aymar aru: Mississippi suyu
azərbaycanca: Missisipi ştatı
বাংলা: মিসিসিপি
Bân-lâm-gú: Mississippi
башҡортса: Миссисипи (штат)
беларуская: Місісіпі (штат)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Місысыпі (штат)
भोजपुरी: मिसिसिपी
Bikol Central: Mississippi
Bislama: Mississippi
български: Мисисипи (щат)
bosanski: Mississippi
буряад: Миссисипи
català: Mississipí
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Mississippi
davvisámegiella: Mississippi
Ελληνικά: Μισισίπι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Missisìpi
español: Misisipi
Esperanto: Misisipio
euskara: Mississippi
فارسی: میسیسیپی
Fiji Hindi: Mississippi
føroyskt: Mississippi
Gaeilge: Mississippi
Gagauz: Mississippi
Gàidhlig: Mississippi
galego: Mississippi
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mississippi
хальмг: Миссисипи
한국어: 미시시피주
Hawaiʻi: Mikikipi
հայերեն: Միսսիսիպի
हिन्दी: मिसिसिप्पी
hrvatski: Mississippi
Ilokano: Mississippi
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মিসিসিপি (রাজ্য)
Bahasa Indonesia: Mississippi
interlingua: Mississippi
Interlingue: Mississippi
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒦᓰᓰᐲ (ᐃᓗᐊᓂ)
Iñupiak: Mississippi
italiano: Mississippi
Basa Jawa: Mississippi
Kapampangan: Mississippi
kernowek: Mississippi
Kiswahili: Mississippi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Misisipi (eta)
kurdî: Mississippi
кырык мары: Миссисипи (штат)
Ladino: Misisipi
لۊری شومالی: می سی سی پی
Latina: Mississippia
Lëtzebuergesch: Mississippi (Bundesstaat)
lietuvių: Misisipė
Ligure: Misciscippi
lumbaart: Mississippi
मैथिली: मिसिसिपी
македонски: Мисисипи
Malagasy: Mississippi
മലയാളം: മിസിസിപ്പി
Māori: Mississippi
मराठी: मिसिसिपी
მარგალური: მისისიპიშ შტატი
مصرى: مسيسيبى
مازِرونی: می‌سی‌سی‌پی
Bahasa Melayu: Mississippi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mississippi
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မစ္စစ္စပီပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Mississippi
Dorerin Naoero: Mississippi
Nedersaksies: Mississippi (stoat)
नेपाली: मिसिसिपी
नेपाल भाषा: मिसिसिपि राज्य
Napulitano: Mississippi
norsk nynorsk: Mississippi
олык марий: Миссисипи (штат)
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mississippi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਸੀਸਿੱਪੀ
پنجابی: مسسسپی
Piemontèis: Mississippi
Plattdüütsch: Mississippi (Bundsstaat)
português: Mississippi
română: Mississippi
Runa Simi: Mississippi suyu
саха тыла: Миссиссиппи
Gagana Samoa: Misisipi
संस्कृतम्: मिसिसिपी
Seeltersk: Mississippi
sicilianu: Mississippi
Simple English: Mississippi
српски / srpski: Мисисипи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mississippi
svenska: Mississippi
Tagalog: Mississippi
Taqbaylit: Mississippi
татарча/tatarça: Миссисипи (штат)
తెలుగు: మిసిసిపీ
Türkçe: Mississippi
українська: Міссісіпі (штат)
اردو: مسیسپی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Missisipi Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Mississippi
Volapük: Mississippi
Winaray: Mississippi
ייִדיש: מיסיסיפי
Zazaki: Mississippi
Kabɩyɛ: Misisipii
Lingua Franca Nova: Mississippi