Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.png
Miguel Hidalgo
Born8 May 1753
Pénjamo, Guanajuato, Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Guanajuato, Mexico)[1][2]
Died30 July 1811(1811-07-30) (aged 58)
Chihuahua, Nueva Vizcaya, Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Chihuahua, Mexico)
BuriedÁngel de la Independencia
Mexico City
AllegianceMexico
Service/branchEstandarte de Hidalgo.svg Mexican Insurgency
Years of service1810–1811
Commands heldGeneralissimo
Battles/warsMexican War of Independence
SignatureFirma de Miguel Hidalgo.svg

Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor[3]; 8 May 1753  – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel iˈðalɣo], was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, Dias. After his arrival, he was shocked by the rich soil he had found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items.[4] In 1810 he gave the famous speech, "The Cry of Dolores", calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Fernando VII (held captive by Napoleon) by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy.[5]

He marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked and killed both Spanish Peninsulares and Criollo elites, even though Hidalgo's troops lacked training and were poorly armed. These troops ran into an army of 6,000 well-trained and armed Spanish troops; most of Hidalgo's troops fled or were killed at the Battle of Calderón Bridge.[6]

Early years

Hidalgo was the second-born child of Don Cristóbal Hidalgo y Costilla and Doña Ana María Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor.[7] Hidalgo was born a criollo.[note 1][7] Under the system of the day, Hidalgo's rights as a criollo were far less than those of someone born in Spain but better than a mestizo, a person of both Spanish and Amerindian ancestry, and other castas. Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo's father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo's parents would have three other sons; José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María.[citation needed]

In 1759, Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain; he soon sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate and reform all parts of colonial government. During this period, Don Cristóbal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquín should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education.[8] When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolás,[2][9][10] where he studied for the priesthood.[2]

He completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and theology in 1773.[11] His education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin, rhetoric and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages,[10] such as Nahuatl, Otomi and Purépecha. He also studied Italian and French, which were not commonly studied in Mexico at this time.[9] He earned the nickname "El Zorro" ("The Fox") for his reputation for cleverness at school.[1][12] Hidalgo's study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe[2] but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico.[1]

Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778 when he was 25 years old.[9][12] From 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid (now Morelia); it was "one of the most important educational centers of the viceroyalty."[13] He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor. Beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary,[11] becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39.[2][14] As rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France and other parts of Europe. Authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but also for "irregular handling of some funds."[15] The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, Guanajuato,[9] succeeding his brother Felipe (also a priest), who died in 1802.

Although Hidalgo had a traditional education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methods and curriculum. In his personal life, he did not advocate or live the way expected of 18th-century Mexican priests. Instead, his studies of Enlightenment-era ideas caused him to challenge traditional political and religious views. He questioned the absolute authority of the Spanish king and challenged numerous ideas presented by the Church, including the power of the popes, the virgin birth, and clerical celibacy. As a secular cleric, he was not bound by a vow of poverty, so he, like many other secular priests, pursued business activities, including owning three haciendas;[16] but contrary to his vow of chastity, he formed liaisons with women. One was with Manuela Ramos Pichardo, with whom he had two children, as well as a child with Bibiana Lucero.[15] He later lived with a woman named María Manuela Herrera,[10] fathering two daughters out of wedlock with her, and later fathered three other children with a woman named Josefa Quintana.[17] He enjoyed dancing and gambling.

These actions resulted in his appearance before the Court of the Inquisition, although the court did not find him guilty.[10] Hidalgo was egalitarian. As parish priest in both San Felipe and Dolores, he opened his house to Indians and mestizos as well as creoles.[12]

Other Languages
Aymar aru: Miguel Hidalgo
français: Miguel Hidalgo
հայերեն: Միգել Իդալգո
Bahasa Indonesia: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
ქართული: მიგელ იდალგო
Nāhuatl: Miguel Hidalgo
Nederlands: Miguel Hidalgo
português: Miguel Hidalgo
Runa Simi: Miguel Hidalgo
Simple English: Miguel Hidalgo
slovenščina: Miguel Hidalgo
српски / srpski: Мигел Идалго
Türkçe: Miguel Hidalgo
українська: Мігель Ідальго