Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.png
Generalísimo of the Mexican Army
Born 8 May 1753
Pénjamo, Guanajuato, Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Guanajuato, Mexico) [1] [2]
Died 30 July 1811(1811-07-30) (aged 58)
Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico)
Buried El Ángel de la Independencia
Mexico City
Allegiance Mexico
Service/branch Civil War Army
Years of service 1809–1811
Commands held Mexican Revolutionary
Battles/wars Mexican War of Independence

Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor[ pronunciation?] [3] (8 May 1753  – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores, Dias. After his arrival, he was shocked by the rich soil he had found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items. [4] In 1810 he gave the famous speech, " The Cry of Dolores", calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Fernando VII (held captive by Napoleon) by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy. [5]

He marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked and killed both Spanish Peninsulares and Criollo elites, even though Hidalgo's troops lacked training and were poorly armed. These troops ran into an army of 6,000 well-trained and armed Spanish troops; most of Hidalgo's troops fled or were killed at the Battle of Calderón Bridge. [6]

Early years

Hidalgo was the second-born child of Don Cristóbal Hidalgo y Costilla and Doña Ana María Gallaga. [7] Hidalgo was born a criollo. [note 1] [7] Under the system of the day, Hidalgo's rights as a criollo were far less than those of someone born in Spain but better than a mestizo, a person of both Spanish and Amerindian ancestry, and other castas. Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo's father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo's parents would have three other sons; José Joaquín, Manuel Mariano, and José María.[ citation needed]

In 1759, Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain; he soon sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate and reform all parts of colonial government. During this period, Don Cristóbal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquín should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction, likely from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education. [7]

Other Languages
Aymar aru: Miguel Hidalgo
français: Miguel Hidalgo
Հայերեն: Միգել Իդալգո
Bahasa Indonesia: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
ქართული: მიგელ იდალგო
Nāhuatl: Miguel Hidalgo
Nederlands: Miguel Hidalgo
português: Miguel Hidalgo
Runa Simi: Miguel Hidalgo
Simple English: Miguel Hidalgo
slovenščina: Miguel Hidalgo
српски / srpski: Мигел Идалго
Türkçe: Miguel Hidalgo
українська: Мігель Ідальго