Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows
Windows darkblue 2012.svg
Source model
Initial releaseNovember 20, 1985; 33 years ago (1985-11-20), as version 1.0 (unsupported)
Latest release1903 (10.0.18362.449) October 24, 2019 (21 days ago) (2019-10-24)[1]
Latest preview20H1 (10.0.19008) October 22, 2019 (23 days ago) (2019-10-22)
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in138 languages[2]
Update method
Package managerWindows Installer (.msi, .msp), Executable file (.exe), Universal Windows Platform (.appx, .appxbundle)[3]
PlatformsIA-32, x86-64, ARM, ARM64
Previously: 16-bit x86, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC, Itanium
Kernel type
Default user interfaceWindows shell

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Microsoft Windows families include Windows NT and Windows IoT; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Server or Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE). Defunct Microsoft Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).[4] Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android,[5] because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold. This comparison, however, may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows (that are comparable to competitors) show one third market share, similar to that for end user use.

As of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets, smartphones and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent version for server computers is Windows Server, version 1903.[6] A specialized version of Windows also runs on the Xbox One video game console.[7]


By marketing role

Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. As of 2014, the following Windows families were being actively developed:

The following Windows families are no longer being developed:

Other Languages
অসমীয়া: ৱিণ্ড'জ
azərbaycanca: Microsoft Windows
Bân-lâm-gú: Microsoft Windows
башҡортса: Windows
беларуская: Microsoft Windows
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Microsoft Windows
български: Microsoft Windows
Boarisch: Windows
corsu: Windows
Ελληνικά: Microsoft Windows
føroyskt: Windows
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Microsoft Windows
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Bahasa Indonesia: Microsoft Windows
interlingua: Microsoft Windows
עברית: Microsoft Windows
ქართული: Microsoft Windows
қазақша: Microsoft Windows
Кыргызча: Microsoft Windows
Lëtzebuergesch: Microsoft Windows
Ligure: Windows
Limburgs: Windows
la .lojban.: la .uindoz.
lumbaart: Windows
magyar: Windows
македонски: Microsoft Windows
მარგალური: Microsoft Windows
Bahasa Melayu: Microsoft Windows
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Microsoft Windows
монгол: Microsoft Windows
Dorerin Naoero: Microsoft Windows
Nederlands: Microsoft Windows
norsk nynorsk: Microsoft Windows
occitan: Windows
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Microsoft Windows
Plattdüütsch: Microsoft Windows
português: Microsoft Windows
Qaraqalpaqsha: Microsoft Windows
Ripoarisch: Microsoft Windows
Runa Simi: Windows
русиньскый: Microsoft Windows
русский: Windows
саха тыла: Microsoft Windows
Simple English: Microsoft Windows
slovenčina: Microsoft Windows
slovenščina: Microsoft Windows
Soomaaliga: Microsoft Windows
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Microsoft Windows
татарча/tatarça: Microsoft Windows
తెలుగు: విండోస్
тоҷикӣ: Microsoft Windows
українська: Microsoft Windows
vepsän kel’: Microsoft Windows
Tiếng Việt: Microsoft Windows
文言: 微軟視窗
West-Vlams: Windows
吴语: 微软视窗
ייִדיש: Windows
žemaitėška: Microsoft Windows