Michael I of Romania

Michael I
Mihai I.jpg
King Michael in 1947
King of Romania
1st reign20 July 1927 – 8 June 1930
PredecessorFerdinand I
SuccessorCarol II
2nd reign6 September 1940 – 30 December 1947
Coronation6 September 1940
PredecessorCarol II
SuccessorMonarchy abolished
Born25 October 1921
Peleș Castle, Sinaia, Kingdom of Romania
Died5 December 2017 (aged 96)
Aubonne, Switzerland
Burial16 December 2017
Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma
(m. 1948; died 2016)
IssueMargareta of Romania
Princess Elena
Princess Irina
Princess Sophie
Princess Marie
HouseRomania (from 2011)
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (until 2011)
FatherCarol II of Romania
MotherPrincess Helen of Greece and Denmark
ReligionRomanian Orthodox
SignatureMichael I's signature

Michael I (Romanian: Mihai I [miˈhaj]; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his forced abdication on 30 December 1947.

Shortly after Michael's birth, his father, Crown Prince Carol of Romania, had become involved in a controversial relationship with Magda Lupescu. In 1925, Carol was eventually pressured to renounce his rights to the throne and moved to Paris in exile with Lupescu. In 1927, Michael ascended the throne, following the death of his grandfather King Ferdinand I. As he was still a minor, a regency council was instituted which comprised his uncle Prince Nicholas; the Patriarch Miron Cristea; and the president of the Supreme Court, Gheorghe Buzdugan. The council proved to be ineffective and in 1930, Carol returned to Romania and replaced his son as monarch, reigning as Carol II. As a result, Michael returned to being heir apparent to the throne and was given the additional title of Grand Voievod of Alba-Iulia.

Carol II was deposed in 1940, and Michael once again became king. Under the government led by the military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania became aligned with Nazi Germany. In 1944, Michael participated in a coup against Antonescu, appointed Constantin Sănătescu as his replacement, and subsequently declared an alliance with the Allies. In March 1945, political pressures forced Michael to appoint a pro-Soviet government headed by Petru Groza. From August 1945 to January 1946, Michael went on a "royal strike" and unsuccessfully tried to oppose Groza's Communist-controlled government by refusing to sign and endorse its decrees. In November, Michael attended the wedding of his cousins, the future Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark in London. Shortly thereafter, on the morning of 30 December 1947, Groza requested a meeting with Michael where he was forced to abdicate. Michael was forced into exile, his properties confiscated, and his citizenship stripped. He married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma in 1948, with whom he had five daughters, and eventually settled in Switzerland.

Nicolae Ceaușescu's communist dictatorship was overthrown in 1989 and the following year Michael attempted to return to Romania, only to be arrested and forced to leave upon arrival. In 1992, Michael was allowed to visit Romania for Easter where he was greeted by huge crowds; a speech he gave from his hotel window drew an estimated one million people to Bucharest. Alarmed by Michael's popularity, the post-communist government of Ion Iliescu refused to allow him any further visits. In 1997, after Iliescu's defeat by Emil Constantinescu in the presidential elections of the previous year, Michael's citizenship was restored and he was allowed to visit Romania again. Several confiscated properties, such as Peleş Castle and Săvârşin Castle, were eventually returned to his family.

Early life

Prince Michael aged 5

Michael was born in 1921 at Foișor Castle on the Royal Complex of Peleș in Sinaia, Romania, the son of Crown Prince Carol of Romania and Crown Princess Elena.[1] He was born as the paternal grandson of the reigning King Ferdinand I of Romania and maternal grandson of the reigning King Constantine I of Greece. When Carol eloped with his mistress Elena Magda Lupescu and renounced his rights to the throne in December 1925, Michael was declared heir apparent. Michael succeeded to the throne of Romania upon Ferdinand's death in July 1927, before his sixth birthday.[2] Later, Michael attended a special school established in 1932 by his father.[3][4]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: I Mixay
беларуская: Міхай I
български: Михай I
eesti: Mihai I
فارسی: میهای یکم
한국어: 미하이 1세
Bahasa Indonesia: Mikael I dari Rumania
ქართული: მიჰაი I
Lëtzebuergesch: Mihai I. vu Rumänien
Bahasa Melayu: Mihai I dari Romania
русский: Михай I
Simple English: Michael I of Romania
српски / srpski: Михај Румунски
татарча/tatarça: Михай I
Türkçe: Mihai
українська: Міхай I