"How fortunate for civilization, that Beethoven, Michelangelo, Galileo and Faraday were not required by law to attend schools where their total personalities would have been operated upon to make them learn acceptable ways of participating as members of “the group."
Joel H. Hildebrand's Education for Creativity in the Sciences speech at New York University, 1963.
Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in
 which is now part of the
London Borough of Southwark but was then a suburban part of
 His family was not well off. His father, James, was a member of the
Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790 from
Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith.
 Michael was born in the autumn of that year. The young Michael Faraday, who was the third of four children, having only the most basic school education, had to
At the age of 14 he became an apprentice to
George Riebau, a local bookbinder and bookseller in Blandford Street.
 During his seven-year apprenticeship Faraday read many books, including
Isaac Watts's The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein.
 He also developed an interest in science, especially in electricity. Faraday was particularly inspired by the book Conversations on Chemistry by
Portrait of Faraday in his late thirties, ca. 1826
In 1812, at the age of 20 and at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist
Humphry Davy of the
Royal Institution and the
Royal Society, and
John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many of the tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by
William Dance, who was one of the founders of the
Royal Philharmonic Society. Faraday subsequently sent Davy a 300-page book based on notes that he had taken during these lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable. In 1813, when Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with
nitrogen trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as an assistant. Coincidentally one of the Royal Institution's assistants, John Payne, was sacked and Sir Humphry Davy had been asked to find a replacement; thus he appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution on 1 March 1813.
 Very soon Davy entrusted Faraday with the preparation of nitrogen trichloride samples, and they both were injured in an explosion of this very sensitive substance.
Michael Faraday, ca. 1861, aged about 70.
In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a
gentleman. When Davy set out on a long tour of the continent in 1813–15, his
valet did not wish to go, so instead, Faraday went as Davy's scientific assistant and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal (making him travel outside the coach, eat with the servants, etc.), and made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether. The trip did, however, give him access to the scientific elite of Europe and exposed him to a host of stimulating ideas.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800–1879) on 12 June 1821.
 They met through their families at the
Sandemanian church, and he confessed his faith to the Sandemanian congregation the month after they were married. They had no children.
Faraday was a devout Christian; his Sandemanian denomination was an offshoot of the
Church of Scotland. Well after his marriage, he served as
deacon and for two terms as an
elder in the meeting house of his youth. His church was located at Paul's Alley in the
Barbican. This meeting house relocated in 1862 to
Islington; this North London location was where Faraday served the final two years of his second term as elder prior to his resignation from that post.
 Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."
Three Fellows of the
offering the presidency to Faraday, 1857
In June 1832, the
University of Oxford granted Faraday a
Doctor of Civil Law degree (honorary). During his lifetime, he was offered a
knighthood in recognition for his services to science, which he
turned down on religious grounds, believing that it was against the word of the Bible to accumulate riches and pursue worldly reward, and stating that he preferred to remain "plain Mr Faraday to the end".
 Elected a member of the
Royal Society in 1824, he twice refused to become
 He became the first
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the
Royal Institution in 1833.
In 1832, Faraday was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
 He was elected a foreign member of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1838, and was one of eight foreign members elected to the
French Academy of Sciences in 1844.
 In 1849 he was elected as associated member to the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, which two years later became the
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and he was subsequently made foreign member.
Faraday suffered a nervous breakdown in 1839 but eventually returned to his investigations into electromagnetism.
 In 1848, as a result of representations by the
Prince Consort, Faraday was awarded a
grace and favour house in
Hampton Court in Middlesex, free of all expenses and upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday House, and now No. 37 Hampton Court Road. In 1858 Faraday retired to live there.
Having provided a number of various service projects for the British government, when asked by the government to advise on the production of chemical weapons for use in the
Crimean War (1853–1856), Faraday refused to participate citing ethical reasons.
Faraday died at his house at
Hampton Court on 25 August 1867, aged 75.
 He had some years before turned down an offer of burial in
Westminster Abbey upon his death, but he has a memorial plaque there, near
Isaac Newton's tomb. Faraday was interred in the
Anglican) section of