Miami

Miami, Florida
Metropolitan City
City of Miami
A collage of images of Miami.
Flag of Miami, Florida
Flag
Official seal of Miami, Florida
Seal
Nickname(s): Magic City, The Gateway to the Americas, Capital of Latin America[1]
Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida
Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida
Miami is located in the US
Miami
Miami
Location in the contiguous United States
Coordinates: 25°46′31″N 80°12′32″W / 25°46′31″N 80°12′32″W / 25.77528; -80.20889
Country United States
State Florida
County Miami-Dade
Settled1825
IncorporatedJuly 28, 1896
Named forMayaimi
Government
 • TypeMayor–commission
 • MayorFrancis X. Suarez (R)
 • City ManagerEmilio T. Gonzalez, PhD
Area[2]
 • Metropolitan City56.06 sq mi (145.20 km2)
 • Land35.99 sq mi (93.20 km2)
 • Water20.08 sq mi (52.00 km2)
 • Urban1,116.1 sq mi (2,891 km2)
 • Metro6,137 sq mi (15,890 km2)
Elevation6 ft (2 m)
Highest elevation42 ft (13 m)
Population (2010)[3][4][5][6]
 • Metropolitan City399,457
 • Estimate (2016)[7]453,579
 • Rank44th, U.S.
 • Density12,604.32/sq mi (4,866.49/km2)
 • Urban5,502,379 (4th, U.S.)
 • Metro5,564,635 (8th, U.S.)
Demonym(s)Miamian
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)33010–33299
Area code(s)305 and 786
FIPS code12-45000
Websitemiamigov.com

Miami (i/; Spanish pronunciation: [miˈami]) is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States. As the seat of Miami-Dade County, the municipality is the principal, central, and the most populous city of the Miami metropolitan area and part of the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States.[8] According to the United States Census Bureau, Miami's metro area is the seventh-most populous and fourth-largest urban area in the U.S., with a population of around 5.5 million.[9][10]

Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade.[11][12] In 2012, Miami was classified as an "Alpha−" level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory.[13] In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement.[14][15] In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs.[16] According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power.[17] Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America"[1] and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.[18]

Miami has the third tallest skyline in the U.S. with over 300 high-rises. Downtown Miami is home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and many large national and international companies.[19][20] The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world. It accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.[21][22] Metropolitan Miami is also a major tourism hub in the southeastern U.S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City.[23]

History

Approximately 400 men voted for Miami's incorporation in 1896 in the building to the left.

The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes. The Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B.C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River.[24]

In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively controlled Florida, and Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole. The Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.

Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle",[25] a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native. The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness.[26] The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida."[27] The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami."[28][29] Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300.[30] It was named for the nearby Miami River, derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee.[31]

The Freedom Tower, built in 1925, is Miami's historical landmark.

Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population.[32]:25 Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space. When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed.[32]:33

During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, and Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure. The legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."[32]:53

The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, and the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, Miami, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines. The war brought an increase in Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city.

After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. The city developed businesses and cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s, South Florida weathered social problems related to drug wars, immigration from Haiti and Latin America, and the widespread destruction of Hurricane Andrew.[33] Racial and cultural tensions were sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. It is the second-largest US city (after El Paso, Texas) with a Spanish-speaking majority, and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.[18]

Miami and its metropolitan area grew from just over 1,000 residents to nearly 5.5 million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, The Magic City, comes from this rapid growth. Winter visitors remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic.[33]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Miami
አማርኛ: ማያሚ
Ænglisc: Miami
العربية: ميامي
aragonés: Miami
asturianu: Miami
Aymar aru: Miami (Florida)
azərbaycanca: Mayami
bamanankan: Miami
বাংলা: মায়ামি
Bân-lâm-gú: Miami
беларуская: Маямі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Маямі
български: Маями
Boarisch: Miami
bosanski: Miami
brezhoneg: Miami
català: Miami
čeština: Miami
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Miami
corsu: Miami
Cymraeg: Miami
dansk: Miami
Deitsch: Miami
Deutsch: Miami
eesti: Miami
Ελληνικά: Μαϊάμι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Miami
español: Miami
Esperanto: Miamo
euskara: Miami
فارسی: میامی
føroyskt: Miami
français: Miami
Frysk: Miami
Gaelg: Miami
Gàidhlig: Miami, Florida
galego: Miami
Gĩkũyũ: Miami
ગુજરાતી: માયામિ
한국어: 마이애미
Հայերեն: Մայամի
हिन्दी: मियामी
hrvatski: Miami, Florida
Bahasa Indonesia: Miami
interlingua: Miami (Florida)
Interlingue: Miami
Ирон: Майами
íslenska: Miami
italiano: Miami
עברית: מיאמי
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಿಯಾಮಿ
Kapampangan: Miami, Florida
ქართული: მაიამი
қазақша: Майами
kernowek: Miami, Florida
Kiswahili: Miami
Kreyòl ayisyen: Miyami
kurdî: Miami
Кыргызча: Майами
кырык мары: Майами
Ladino: Miami
Latina: Miamia
latviešu: Maiami
lietuvių: Majamis
Limburgs: Miami
lingála: Miami
lumbaart: Miami, Florida
magyar: Miami
македонски: Мајами
Malagasy: Miami
മലയാളം: മയാമി
मराठी: मायामी
მარგალური: მაიამი
مصرى: مايامى
Bahasa Melayu: Miami
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Miami
монгол: Майами
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မိုင်ယာမီမြို့
Nāhuatl: Miami
Dorerin Naoero: Miami
Nederlands: Miami
नेपाल भाषा: मायामी, फ्लोरिडा
日本語: マイアミ
нохчийн: Майами
norsk: Miami
norsk nynorsk: Miami
occitan: Miami
پنجابی: میامی
Papiamentu: Miami
Piemontèis: Miami
polski: Miami
português: Miami
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mayami
reo tahiti: Miami
română: Miami
Romani: Miami
Runa Simi: Miami (Florida)
русский: Майами
саха тыла: Майами
sardu: Miami
Scots: Miami
shqip: Miami
sicilianu: Miami
Simple English: Miami
slovenčina: Miami
slovenščina: Miami
ślůnski: Miami
Soomaaliga: Miami
Sranantongo: Miami
српски / srpski: Мајами
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Miami
suomi: Miami
svenska: Miami
தமிழ்: மயாமி
తెలుగు: మయామి
tetun: Miami
тоҷикӣ: Майами
Türkçe: Miami
Twi: Miami
українська: Маямі
اردو: میامی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Miami
vèneto: Miami
vepsän kel’: Majami
Tiếng Việt: Miami
Volapük: Miami
Winaray: Miami
吴语: 迈阿密
ייִדיש: מיאמי
Yorùbá: Miami
粵語: 邁亞美
中文: 迈阿密