Mediterranean climate

Regions with Mediterranean climates
  Hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa)
  Warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb)

A Mediterranean climate n/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures. In addition to the Mediterranean Basin, the climate is also found in most of California in the United States, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Western and Central Asia, and in Central Chile.

Outside the Mediterranean Basin, the Mediterranean climate is usually located geographically on the western coasts of continental masses, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles, and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, a Mediterranean climate is a combination of the three climates with winters somewhat mimicking winters in oceanic climates and summers imitating dry seasons in semi-arid and arid climates. Additionally, Mediterranean climates tend to be wetter poleward and drier towards the equator.

The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa and the Chilean scrubland in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called “Mediterranean trinity” has traditionally developed: wheat, vine and olive.


The Mediterranean climate is characterised by dry summers and mild, rainy winters. They are located on the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. Mediterranean climate zones are typically associated with the five large subtropical high-pressure belts of the oceans: the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean High. These high-pressure belts, called anticyclones, rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Anticyclones cause air in the surrounding atmosphere to diverge and descend, sinking the air in opposing directions until there are no clouds present; leaving clear skies. Climatological high-pressure anticyclones migrate by latitude according to the direct angle of the Sun, shifting northward in the summer and toward the equator in the winter. These semi-permanent high-pressure belts play a major role in the formation of the world's subtropical and tropical deserts as well as the rainless summers associated with the Mediterranean climate.

The Azores High (also known as the Bermuda High), is associated with the Mediterranean climate found in the Mediterranean Basin, the Sahara Desert, and Arabian Desert (as well as that of the Azores, Canary Islands, and other eastern Atlantic islands). The South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and Kalahari Desert, and the Mediterranean climate of the western part of South Africa. The North Pacific High is related to the North American deserts: the Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert, and maintains the Mediterranean climate found in California. The South Pacific High correlates to the Atacama Desert and Central Chile's climate, while the Indian Ocean High controls southwestern Australia's climate. [1]

Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, Istanbul, Izmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Lisbon, Casablanca, Cape Town, Adelaide, Perth, Santiago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tashkent and Dushanbe.

Other Languages
العربية: مناخ متوسطي
Bahasa Indonesia: Iklim Mediterania
Bahasa Melayu: Iklim Mediterranean
norsk nynorsk: Middelhavsklima
Simple English: Mediterranean climate
slovenščina: Sredozemsko podnebje
српски / srpski: Средоземна клима
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mediteranska klima
Türkçe: Akdeniz iklimi