Regions with Mediterranean climates
Hot-summer mediterranean climate (Csa)
Warm-summer mediterranean climate (Csb)
A Mediterranean climate / or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where it is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, such as most of California in the United States, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Western and Central Asia, and in Central Chile. These are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles (where they tend to be wetter), and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator (where they tend to be drier).
In essence, and due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters somewhat mimicking winters in oceanic climates and summers imitating dry seasons in semi-arid and arid climates. But contrary to oceanic climates, there are always a number of clear, sunny days in the wet season.
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa and the Chilean scrubland in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" has traditionally developed: wheat, vine and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome, Valencia and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco, Santiago and Tashkent.