Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranee 02 EN.jpg
Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Coordinates35°N 18°E / 35°N 18°E / Atlantic Ocean, Sea of Marmara, Nile, Ebro, Rhône, Chelif, Po
Basin countries
Surface area2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Average depth1,500 m (4,900 ft)
Max. depth5,267 m (17,280 ft)
Water volume3,750,000 km3 (900,000 cu mi)
Residence time80–100 years[1]
SettlementsAlexandria, Algiers, Athens, Barcelona, Beirut, Carthage, Dubrovnik, Istanbul, İzmir, Rome, Split, Tangier, Tel Aviv, Tripoli, Tunis (full list)

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years (the Messinian salinity crisis) before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

It covers an area of about 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi),[2] representing 0.7% of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar—the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa—is only 14 km (9 mi) wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.[3][4]

The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m (17,280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. It lies between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southeastern coast of Turkey, is about 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi).

The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times, facilitating trade and cultural exchange between peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.

Names and etymology

Wadj-Ur, or Wadj-Wer, ancient Egyptian name of the Mediterranean Sea
With its highly indented coastline and large number of islands, Greece has the longest Mediterranean coastline.

The Ancient Egyptians called the Mediterranean Wadj-wr/Wadj-Wer/Wadj-Ur.

The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean simply ἡ θάλασσα (hē thálassa; "the Sea") or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα (hē megálē thálassa; "the Great Sea"), ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα (hē hēmétera thálassa; "Our Sea"), or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς (hē thálassa hē kath’hēmâs; "the sea around us").

The Romans called it Mare Magnum ("Great Sea") or Mare Internum ("Internal Sea") and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea"). The term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus apparently used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville.[5][6] It means 'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius ("middle"), terra ("land, earth"), and -āneus ("having the nature of").

The Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος (mesógeios; "inland"), from μέσος (mésos, "in the middle") and γήινος (gḗinos, "of the earth"), from γῆ (, "land, earth"). The original meaning may have been 'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than 'the sea enclosed by land'.[7][8]

Ancient Iranians called it the "Roman Sea", in Classic Persian texts was called Daryāy-e Rōm (دریای روم) which may be from Middle Persian form, Zrēh ī Hrōm (𐭦𐭫𐭩𐭤 𐭩 𐭤𐭫𐭥𐭬).[9]

The Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was primarily known as the "Great Sea", HaYam HaGadol, (Numbers; Book of Joshua; Ezekiel) or simply as "The Sea" (1 Kings. However, it has also been called the "Hinder Sea" because of its location on the west coast of Greater Syria or the Holy Land (and therefore behind a person facing the east), which is sometimes translated as "Western Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", Book of Exodus), from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon 'the Middle Sea'.[10] In Classic Persian texts was called Daryāy-e Šām (دریای شام) "The Western Sea" or "Syrian Sea".[11]

In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr [al-Abyaḍ] al-Mutawassiṭ (البحر [الأبيض] المتوسط) 'the [White] Middle Sea'. In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm(ī) (بحر الروم or بحر الرومي}) 'the Sea of the Romans' or 'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was later extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām(ī) (بحر الشام) ("the Sea of Syria") and Baḥr al-Maghrib (بحرالمغرب) ("the Sea of the West").[12][6]

In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz 'the White Sea'; in Ottoman, ﺁق دكيز, which sometimes means only the Aegean Sea.[13] The origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea.[12][10][14] In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, which was also used in later Ottoman Turkish. It is probably the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα (Άspri Thálassa, lit. "White Sea").[12]

Johann Knobloch claims that in classical antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north (explaining the name Black Sea), yellow or blue to east, red to south (e.g., the Red Sea), and white to west. This would explain the Greek Άspri Thálassa, the Bulgarian Byalo More, the Turkish Akdeniz, and the Arab nomenclature described above, lit. "White Sea".[15]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: ЩIылъэку Хы
адыгабзэ: Хыгурыт
Afrikaans: Middellandse See
Alemannisch: Mittelmeer
Ænglisc: Wendelsǣ
aragonés: Mar Mediterrania
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܝܡܐ ܪܒܐ
armãneashti: Amarea Mediteranâ
অসমীয়া: ভূমধ্য সাগৰ
asturianu: Mar Mediterraneu
Avañe'ẽ: Para Yvy mbytépe
azərbaycanca: Aralıq dənizi
bamanankan: Mediterane Baji
Banjar: Laut Tangah
Bân-lâm-gú: Tē-tiong-hái
башҡортса: Урта диңгеҙ
беларуская: Міжземнае мора
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Міжземнае мора
भोजपुरी: रूम सागर
Bikol Central: Dagat Mediterraneo
български: Средиземно море
Boarisch: Middlmeea
bosanski: Sredozemno more
brezhoneg: Mor Kreizdouar
Deutsch: Mittelmeer
Diné bizaad: Médíwííyin Sii
dolnoserbski: Srjejźne mórjo
eesti: Vahemeri
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Mêr Mediteràni
Esperanto: Mediteraneo
estremeñu: Mari Mediterráneu
euskara: Mediterraneoa
فارسی: مدیترانه
Fiji Hindi: Mediterranean Sea
贛語: 地中海
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thi-chûng-hói
한국어: 지중해
Արեւմտահայերէն: Միջերկրական Ծով
hornjoserbsce: Srjedźne morjo
hrvatski: Sredozemno more
Bahasa Indonesia: Laut Tengah
interlingua: Mediterraneo
Interlingue: Mediterraneo
kernowek: Mor Kres
latviešu: Vidusjūra
Lëtzebuergesch: Mëttelmier
lingála: Mediterané
Lingua Franca Nova: Mar Mediteraneo
la .lojban.: mijytu'a xamsi
lumbaart: Mar Mediterani
македонски: Средоземно Море
მარგალური: სქირონაშქა ზუღა
مازِرونی: مدیترانه دریا
Bahasa Melayu: Laut Mediterranean
Minangkabau: Lauik Mediterania
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dê-dṳ̆ng-hāi
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မြေထဲပင်လယ်
Nederlands: Middellandse Zee
Nedersaksies: Middellaanse Zee
日本語: 地中海
Napulitano: Mar Mediterraneo
Nordfriisk: Madlunsia
norsk nynorsk: Middelhavet
Nouormand: Mé du Mitan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oʻrta dengiz
پنجابی: رومی سمندر
Papiamentu: Laman Mediteranio
Перем Коми: Мушӧр саридз
Piemontèis: Mar Mediterani
Plattdüütsch: Middellannsche See
português: Mar Mediterrâneo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Jer orta teńizi
qırımtatarca: Aq deñiz
rumantsch: Mar Mediterrana
русиньскый: Середоземне море
Seeltersk: Middelmeer
Simple English: Mediterranean Sea
slovenčina: Stredozemné more
slovenščina: Sredozemsko morje
Soomaaliga: Bada Dhexe
српски / srpski: Средоземно море
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sredozemno more
suomi: Välimeri
svenska: Medelhavet
Taqbaylit: Ilel Agrakal
tarandíne: Mar Mediterranèe
татарча/tatarça: Урта диңгез
Türkçe: Akdeniz
Türkmençe: Ortaýer deňzi
українська: Середземне море
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: يەر ئوتتۇرا دېڭىزى
vepsän kel’: Keskmeri
Tiếng Việt: Địa Trung Hải
Volapük: Zänodamel
Võro: Vaihõmeri
文言: 地中海
吴语: 地中海
粵語: 地中海
žemaitėška: Vėdoržemė jūra
中文: 地中海
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lanmè Méditérané