Medical diagnosis

Radiography is an important tool in diagnosis of certain disorders.

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis.

Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. This involves the correlation of various pieces of information followed by the recognition and differentiation of patterns. Occasionally the process is made easy by a sign or symptom (or a group of several) that is pathognomonic.

Diagnosis is a major component of the procedure of a doctor's visit. From the point of view of statistics, the diagnostic procedure involves classification tests.

History

The first recorded examples of medical diagnosis are found in the writings of Imhotep (2630–2611 BC) in ancient Egypt (the Edwin Smith Papyrus).[2] A Babylonian medical textbook, the Diagnostic Handbook written by Esagil-kin-apli (fl.1069–1046 BC), introduced the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in the diagnosis of an illness or disease.[3] Traditional Chinese Medicine, as described in the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon or Huangdi Neijing, specified four diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation-olfaction, interrogation, and palpation.[4] Hippocrates was known to make diagnoses by tasting his patients' urine and smelling their sweat.[5]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Diagnostik
العربية: تشخيص (طب)
bosanski: Dijagnostika
brezhoneg: Diagnostig
dansk: Diagnose
Deutsch: Diagnose
eesti: Diagnoos
euskara: Diagnostiko
Gaeilge: Diagnóis
한국어: 진단
हिन्दी: निदान
עברית: אבחנה
ქართული: დიაგნოზი
қазақша: Айқындау
Lëtzebuergesch: Diagnos
Bahasa Melayu: Diagnosis
日本語: 診断
norsk: Diagnose
norsk nynorsk: Diagnose
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਰੋਗ-ਪਛਾਣ
português: Diagnóstico
русиньскый: Диагноза
Simple English: Medical diagnosis
српски / srpski: Дијагностика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Medicinska dijagnoza
தமிழ்: நோயறிதல்
тоҷикӣ: Ташхис
吴语: 诊断
粵語: 睇症
中文: 诊断