Mecca

Mecca

Makkah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة‎)[1]

Bakkah (Arabic: بَـكَّـة‎)
Makkah al-Mukarramah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة الْـمُـكَـرَّمَـة‎)
Umm al-Qurā (Arabic: أُمّ الْـقُـرَى‎,[2][3] "Mother of All Settlements")
Clockwise from top left: Jabal al-Nour, the Kaaba in the Great Mosque of Mecca (prior to the completion of the Abraj Al-Bait), overview of central Mecca, Mina and the modern Jamaraat Bridge
Clockwise from top left: Jabal al-Nour, the Kaaba in the Great Mosque of Mecca (prior to the completion of the Abraj Al-Bait), overview of central Mecca, Mina and the modern Jamaraat Bridge
Mecca is located in Saudi Arabia
Mecca
Mecca
Location of Mecca
Mecca is located in Asia
Mecca
Mecca
Mecca (Asia)
Coordinates: 21°25′N 39°49′E / 21°25′N 39°49′E / 21.417; 39.817

Mecca (ə/; Arabic: مكة[1] Makkah (Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈmakːa]) is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ‎, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (Arabic: ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة‎).

As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave 3 km (2 mi) from Mecca),[9][10] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam[11] and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress.[12] Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj.[13] As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,[14] although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.[15][16]

Etymology and usage

"Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, which is closer to the Arabic pronunciation.[17][18] The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.[17] The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide.[17] The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة الْـمُـكَـرَّمَـة‎) or Makkatu l-Mukarramah (Arabic: مَـكَّـةُ الْـمُـكَـرَّمَـة‎, [ˈmæk.kæl mʊkarˈrama, ˈmæk.kætʊl-]), which means "Mecca the Honored", but is also loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca".[17]

The ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah (Arabic: بَـكَّـة‎,[19] also transliterated Baca, Baka, Bakah, Bakka, Becca, Bekka, etc.).[20][21][22] An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure.[23] Widely believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more specifically the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars generally use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that immediately surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah (Arabic: كَـعْـبَـة‎,[19] Kaaba).[24] This form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24.[23][25] In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable[citation needed]. Other references to Mecca in the Quran (6:92,[2] 42:5)[3] call it Umm al-Qurā (Arabic: أُمّ الْـقُـرَى‎), meaning "Mother of All Settlements"[25]/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah (Arabic: تِـهَـامَـة‎).[26]

Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21.[27] Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca.[27] Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah."[28]

Other Languages
Acèh: Meukah
Afrikaans: Mekka
Alemannisch: Mekka
አማርኛ: መካ
العربية: مكة
aragonés: A Meca
অসমীয়া: মক্কা
asturianu: La Meca
Avañe'ẽ: Méka
авар: Макка
azərbaycanca: Məkkə
تۆرکجه: مکه
বাংলা: মক্কা
Bân-lâm-gú: Makka
башҡортса: Мәккә
беларуская: Мекка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мэка
Bikol Central: Meka
български: Мека
བོད་ཡིག: མ་ཁ།
bosanski: Mekka
brezhoneg: Mekka
буряад: Мекка
català: La Meca
Cebuano: Mecca
čeština: Mekka
Chi-Chewa: Mecca
Cymraeg: Mecca
dansk: Mekka
Deutsch: Mekka
ދިވެހިބަސް: މައްކާ
डोटेली: मक्का
eesti: Meka
Ελληνικά: Μέκκα
español: La Meca
Esperanto: Mekko
estremeñu: La Meca
euskara: Meka
فارسی: مکه
Fiji Hindi: Makka
føroyskt: Mekka
français: La Mecque
Frysk: Mekka
Gaeilge: Meice
Gàidhlig: Mecca
galego: A Meca
ГӀалгӀай: Макка
贛語: 麥加
ગુજરાતી: મક્કા
한국어: 메카
Hausa: Makkah
Hawaiʻi: Meka
հայերեն: Մեքքա
हिन्दी: मक्का (शहर)
hornjoserbsce: Mekka
hrvatski: Meka
Ido: Meka
Ilokano: Meka
Bahasa Indonesia: Mekkah
interlingua: Mecca
Interlingue: Mekka
Ирон: Меккæ
íslenska: Mekka
italiano: La Mecca
עברית: מכה
Basa Jawa: Mekah
Kabɩyɛ: Maka
kalaallisut: Mekka
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮೆಕ್ಕಾ
Kapampangan: Meka
ქართული: მექა
қазақша: Мекке
kernowek: Mekka
Kiswahili: Makka
kurdî: Meke
Кыргызча: Меке
лакку: Макка
Latina: Mecca
latviešu: Meka
Lëtzebuergesch: Mekka
лезги: Мекка
lietuvių: Meka
la .lojban.: makax
lumbaart: La Meca
magyar: Mekka
македонски: Мека
മലയാളം: മക്ക
Malti: Mekka
मराठी: मक्का
მარგალური: მექა
مصرى: مكه
مازِرونی: مکه
Bahasa Melayu: Makkah
Baso Minangkabau: Makah
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mecca
Mirandés: Meca
монгол: Мекка
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မက္ကာမြို့
Nederlands: Mekka
नेपाली: मक्का (शहर)
नेपाल भाषा: मक्का
日本語: メッカ
нохчийн: Макка
Norfuk / Pitkern: Meka
norsk: Mekka
norsk nynorsk: Mekka
occitan: La Mèca
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Makka
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੱਕਾ
پنجابی: مکہ
Papiamentu: Mekka
Patois: Meka
Picard: El Mèke
Piemontèis: La Mëcca
polski: Mekka
português: Meca
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mekke
română: Mecca
Runa Simi: Makka
русиньскый: Мекка
русский: Мекка
саха тыла: Мекка
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱮᱠᱠᱟ
Scots: Mecca
shqip: Meka
sicilianu: Mecca
සිංහල: මක්කම
Simple English: Mecca
سنڌي: مڪو
slovenčina: Mekka
slovenščina: Meka
ślůnski: Mekka
Soomaaliga: Makka
کوردی: مەککە
српски / srpski: Мека
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Meka
Basa Sunda: Mekah
suomi: Mekka
svenska: Mecka
Tagalog: Meka
தமிழ்: மக்கா
Taqbaylit: Mekka
tarandíne: 'A Mecca
татарча/tatarça: Мәккә
తెలుగు: మక్కా
тоҷикӣ: Макка
Türkçe: Mekke
Türkmençe: Mekge
українська: Мекка
اردو: مکہ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مەككە
vepsän kel’: Mekk
Tiếng Việt: Mecca
Volapük: Mäkkä
Võro: Meka
文言: 麥加
Winaray: Mecca
吴语: 麦加
ייִדיש: מעקא
Yorùbá: Mẹ́kkà
粵語: 麥加
Zazaki: Meka
žemaitėška: Meka
中文: 麥加