Maurice (emperor)

Maurice Solidus sb0477a (obverse).jpg
Solidus of Emperor Maurice
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign14 August 582 – 27 November 602
PredecessorTiberius II Constantine
Co-emperorTheodosius (590–602)
Arabissus, Cappadocia
Died27 November 602 (aged 63)
Full name
Flavius Mauricius Tiberius
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus[a]
DynastyJustinian Dynasty

Maurice (Latin: Mauricius; Greek: Μαυρίκιος; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602. A prominent general, Maurice fought with success against the Sasanian Empire. After he became Emperor, he brought the war with Sasanian Persia to a victorious conclusion. Under him the Empire's eastern border in the South Caucasus was vastly expanded and, for the first time in nearly two centuries, the Romans were no longer obliged to pay the Persians thousands of pounds of gold annually for peace.

Maurice campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars – pushing them back across the Danube by 599. He also conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Roman Emperor to do so in over two centuries. In the west, he established two large semi-autonomous provinces called exarchates, ruled by exarchs, or viceroys of the emperor. In Italy Maurice established the Exarchate of Italy in 584, the first real effort by the Empire to halt the advance of the Lombards. With the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590 he further solidified the power of Constantinople in the western Mediterranean.

His reign was troubled by financial difficulties and almost constant warfare. In 602 a dissatisfied general named Phocas usurped the throne, having Maurice and his six sons executed. This event would prove a disaster for the Empire, sparking a twenty-six year war with Sassanid Persia which would leave both empires devastated prior to the Muslim conquests. His reign is a relatively well documented era of late antiquity, in particular by the historian Theophylact Simocatta. The Strategikon, a manual of war which influenced European and Middle Eastern military traditions for well over a millennium, is traditionally attributed to Maurice.

Origins and early life

Maurice was born in Arabissus in Cappadocia in 539, the son of a certain Paul. He had one brother, Peter, and two sisters, Theoctista and Gordia, who was later the wife of the general Philippicus.[3] He is recorded to have been a native Greek speaker, unlike the previous emperors since Anastasius I Dicorus.[4] Sources conflict over his birthplace, with most calling him a native Cappadocian Greek and the first emperor "from the race of the Greeks", while historian Evagrius Scholasticus records a descent from old Rome.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Maurice first came to Constantinople as a notarius to serve as a secretary to the comes excubitorum (commander of the Excubitors, the imperial bodyguard), Tiberius, the future Tiberius II (r. 578–582). When Tiberius was named Caesar in 574, Maurice was appointed to succeed him as comes excubitorum.[11]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Maurikios
العربية: موريكيوس
aragonés: Mauricio I
bosanski: Mauricije
čeština: Maurikios
Cymraeg: Mauricius
Deutsch: Maurikios
Esperanto: Maurikios
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Maurice
հայերեն: Մորիկ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Մորիկ
hrvatski: Mauricije
Bahasa Indonesia: Maurikius
македонски: Маврикиј
Nederlands: Mauricius
norsk: Maurikios
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mavrikiy
português: Maurício I
română: Mauriciu
slovenčina: Maurikios I.
српски / srpski: Маврикије
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mavrikije
suomi: Maurikios
svenska: Maurikios
Türkçe: Mauricius
Tiếng Việt: Mauricius
粵語: 莫里斯
Zazaki: Mauricius