## Mathematics |

**Mathematics** (from *máthēma*, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as ^{[1]} ^{[2]} ^{[1]} and ^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}

Mathematicians seek and use ^{[6]}^{[7]} to formulate new

* Elements*. Since the pioneering work of

^{[9]} ^{[10]} ^{[11]} David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise."^{[12]} ^{[13]}

Mathematics is essential in many fields, including ^{[14]}^{[15]}

- history
- definitions of mathematics
- inspiration, pure and applied mathematics, and aesthetics
- notation, language, and rigor
- fields of mathematics
- mathematical awards
- see also
- notes
- footnotes
- references
- further reading
- external links

The history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of ^{[16]} was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.

As evidenced by ^{[17]}

Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 ^{[18]} The most ancient mathematical texts from ^{[19]}

Beginning in the 6th century BC with the ^{[20]} Around 300 BC, * Elements* is widely considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time.

The

During the

During the

Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B. Sevryuk, in the January 2006 issue of the * Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*, "The number of papers and books included in the

The word *mathematics* comes from *máthēma*), meaning "that which is learnt",^{[28]} "what one gets to know", hence also "study" and "science". The word for "mathematics" came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study" even in Classical times.^{[29]} Its adjective is μαθηματικός (*mathēmatikós*), meaning "related to learning" or "studious", which likewise further came to mean "mathematical". In particular, μαθηματικὴ τέχνη (*mathēmatikḗ tékhnē*), *ars mathematica*, meant "the mathematical art".

Similarly, one of the two main schools of thought in *mathēmatikoi* (μαθηματικοί)—which at the time meant "teachers" rather than "mathematicians" in the modern sense.

In Latin, and in English until around 1700, the term *mathematics* more commonly meant "astrology" (or sometimes "astronomy") rather than "mathematics"; the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800. This has resulted in several mistranslations. For example, *mathematici*, meaning astrologers, is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of mathematicians.^{[30]}

The apparent plural form in English, like the French plural form *les mathématiques* (and the less commonly used singular derivative *la mathématique*), goes back to the Latin neuter plural *mathematica* (*ta mathēmatiká*), used by *mathematic(al)* and formed the noun *mathematics* anew, after the pattern of * physics* and

Other Languages

Afrikaans: Wiskunde

አማርኛ: ትምህርተ ሂሳብ

Ænglisc: Rīmcræft

العربية: رياضيات

aragonés: Matematicas

armãneashti: Mathematică

অসমীয়া: গণিত

asturianu: Matemátiques

Avañe'ẽ: Papapykuaa

Aymar aru: Jakhu

azərbaycanca: Riyaziyyat

تۆرکجه: ریاضیات

বাংলা: গণিত

Bahasa Banjar: Matamatika

Bân-lâm-gú: Sò͘-ha̍k

Basa Banyumasan: Matematika

башҡортса: Математика

беларуская: Матэматыка

беларуская (тарашкевіца): Матэматыка

भोजपुरी: गणित

Bislama: Matematikis

български: Математика

Boarisch: Mathematik

བོད་ཡིག: རྩིས་རིག

bosanski: Matematika

brezhoneg: Matematik

буряад: Тоогой ухаан

català: Matemàtiques

Чӑвашла: Математика

Cebuano: Matematika

čeština: Matematika

Chamoru: Matematika

chiShona: Masvomhu

corsu: Matematica

Cymraeg: Mathemateg

dansk: Matematik

Deutsch: Mathematik

ދިވެހިބަސް: ރިޔާޟިއްޔާތު

Diné bizaad: Ałhiiʼnínáʼiidzóóh

dolnoserbski: Matematika

eesti: Matemaatika

Ελληνικά: Μαθηματικά

emiliàn e rumagnòl: Matemâtica

эрзянь: Математика

español: Matemáticas

Esperanto: Matematiko

estremeñu: Matemáticas

euskara: Matematika

فارسی: ریاضیات

Fiji Hindi: Mathematics

føroyskt: Støddfrøði

français: Mathématiques

Frysk: Wiskunde

furlan: Matematiche

Gaeilge: Matamaitic

Gaelg: Maddaght

Gàidhlig: Matamataig

galego: Matemáticas

贛語: 數學

ગુજરાતી: ગણિત

客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Su-ho̍k

хальмг: Математика

한국어: 수학

Hausa: Lissafi

Hawaiʻi: Makemakika

հայերեն: Մաթեմատիկա

हिन्दी: गणित

hrvatski: Matematika

Ido: Matematiko

Igbo: Ọmúmú-ónúọgụgụ

Ilokano: Matematika

বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণিত

Bahasa Indonesia: Matematika

interlingua: Mathematica

Interlingue: Matematica

Ирон: Математикæ

isiXhosa: I-Mathematics

isiZulu: Imathemathiki

íslenska: Stærðfræði

italiano: Matematica

עברית: מתמטיקה

Basa Jawa: Matématika

kalaallisut: Matematikki

ಕನ್ನಡ: ಗಣಿತ

къарачай-малкъар: Математика

ქართული: მათემატიკა

kaszëbsczi: Matematika

қазақша: Математика

Kiswahili: Hisabati

Kreyòl ayisyen: Matematik

kurdî: Matematîk

Кыргызча: Математика

Ladino: Matemátika

лезги: Математика

ລາວ: ຄະນິດສາດ

Latina: Mathematica

latviešu: Matemātika

Lëtzebuergesch: Mathematik

lietuvių: Matematika

Ligure: Matematica

Limburgs: Mathematiek

Livvinkarjala: Matematiekku

la .lojban.: cmaci

Luganda: Ekibalangulo

lumbaart: Matemàtega

magyar: Matematika

मैथिली: गणित

македонски: Математика

Malagasy: Fanisana

മലയാളം: ഗണിതം

Malti: Matematika

मराठी: गणित

მარგალური: მათემატიკა

مصرى: رياضيات

مازِرونی: ریاضی

Bahasa Melayu: Matematik

Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Só-hŏk

Mirandés: Matemática

монгол: Математик

မြန်မာဘာသာ: သင်္ချာ

Nāhuatl: Tlapōhualmatiliztli

Nederlands: Wiskunde

Nedersaksies: Wiskunde

नेपाली: गणित

नेपाल भाषा: ल्याःज्या

日本語: 数学

Nordfriisk: Matematiik

Norfuk / Pitkern: Maethamatiks

norsk: Matematikk

norsk nynorsk: Matematikk

Nouormand: Caltchul

Novial: Matematike

occitan: Matematicas

олык марий: Математике

ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଗଣିତ

Oromoo: Herrega

oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Matematika

ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਗਣਿਤ

पालि: गणितं

Pangasinan: Matematiks

پنجابی: میتھمیٹکس

پښتو: شمېرپوهنه

Patois: Matimatix

ភាសាខ្មែរ: គណិតវិទ្យា

Picard: Matématikes

Piemontèis: Matemàtica

Tok Pisin: Ol matematik

Plattdüütsch: Mathematik

polski: Matematyka

português: Matemática

Qaraqalpaqsha: Matematika

qırımtatarca: Riyaziyat

română: Matematică

Runa Simi: Yupay yachay

русиньскый: Математіка

русский: Математика

саха тыла: Математика

ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱮᱞᱠᱷᱟ

Gagana Samoa: Matematika

संस्कृतम्: गणितम्

sardu: Matemàtica

Scots: Mathematics

Seeltersk: Mathematik

Setswana: Mathematics

shqip: Matematika

sicilianu: Matimàtica

සිංහල: ගණිතය

Simple English: Mathematics

سنڌي: رياضي

SiSwati: Tekubala

slovenčina: Matematika

slovenščina: Matematika

ślůnski: Matymatyka

Soomaaliga: Xisaab

کوردی: ماتماتیک

Sranantongo: Sabi fu Teri

српски / srpski: Математика

srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Matematika

Basa Sunda: Matematika

suomi: Matematiikka

svenska: Matematik

Tagalog: Matematika

தமிழ்: கணிதம்

Taqbaylit: Tusnakt

татарча/tatarça: Математика

తెలుగు: గణితము

tetun: Matemátika

ไทย: คณิตศาสตร์

тоҷикӣ: Риёзиёт

ತುಳು: ಗಣಿತ

Türkçe: Matematik

Türkmençe: Matematika

Thuɔŋjäŋ: Akuënkäŋ

ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨆᨈᨛᨆᨈᨗᨀ

українська: Математика

اردو: ریاضی

Vahcuengh: Soqyoz

vèneto: Matemàtega

vepsän kel’: Matematik

Tiếng Việt: Toán học

Volapük: Matemat

Võro: Matõmaatiga

文言: 數學

West-Vlams: Wiskunde

Winaray: Matematika

Wolof: Xayma

吴语: 数学

Xitsonga: Dyondzo-Tinhlayo

ייִדיש: מאטעמאטיק

Yorùbá: Mathimátíkì

粵語: 數學

Zazaki: Matematik

Zeêuws: Wiskunde

žemaitėška: Matematėka

中文: 数学

ГӀалгӀай: Математика

Lingua Franca Nova: Matematica