Master of Arts
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A Master of Arts (
In Germany, the traditional equivalent of the postgraduate Master of Arts was the Magister Artium. This degree, which usually required 5 years of studies, did exist in former
The Magister Artium was either a double major degree or a combination of one major and two minors. German postgraduate Master's of Arts and Master's of Science degrees were introduced in 2001. Therefore, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees existed side by side until the phase out of the old degrees since 2010; Magister Artium degrees are still awarded (as of 2014). The new Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees together also require 5 years of studies, which is the reason why the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees are considered equivalent.
In the Netherlands, the master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to the
The Polish equivalent of Master of Arts is "magister" (its abbreviation "mgr" is placed before one's name, like dr). At the technical universities, one is awarded with inżynier (engineer) after three years and then with "magister" after completing another two years of study and graduating. Such persons use titles "mgr inż". In the 1990s, the MA programs usually lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor's and 2-year master's programs. The degree is awarded in the arts (literature, foreign languages, filmmaking, theatre etc.), natural sciences, mathematics, computer science fields, and economics. The completion of a research
In Finland, Denmark and Norway, the master's degree is a combined taught/research degree, awarded after 2 years of studies after completing the bachelor's degree. The student is required to write a scientific thesis.
In Finland, this master's degree is called a filosofian maisteri (Finnish) or filosofie magister (Swedish) degree, and it is abbreviated as FM or "fil.mag.".
In Sweden, there is still an intermediate degree between the Bachelor (kandidat) and Master called magister which only requires one year of studies, including a scientific thesis after completing the bachelor's degree. This fourth year typically constitutes the first half of Master programme. If not, it may be supplemented by a fifth year and a Master's thesis to obtain a master's degree in the field of study.
The MA is typically a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a dissertation based on independent research. Taught master's programs involve one or two years of full-time study. Many can be done part-time as well. Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an
The Master of Arts is awarded in
The title of Master of Arts may also be awarded, in the case of the oldest British universities only, without further examination to those who have graduated as
The MLitt is a research degree at the
In February 2011, Labour MP for Nottingham East,
Research by the universities watchdog, the
On 21 October 2011, the master's degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–12 received its second reading. The Bill failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session, meaning it made no further progress.
A number of different master's degrees may be earned at Oxford and Cambridge. The most common, the Master of Philosophy (MPhil), is a two-year research degree. The Master of Science (MSc) and the Master of Studies (MSt) degrees each take one year. They often combine some coursework with research. The Master of Letters (MLitt) is a pure research master's degree. More recently, Oxford and Cambridge offer a Masters of Business Administration. Master's degrees are generally offered without classification, though the top five percent may be deemed worthy of Distinction. Both universities also offer a variety of four-year undergraduate integrated master's degrees such as