Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Flag of MassachusettsState seal of Massachusetts
The Bay State
The Pilgrim State; The Puritan State
The Old Colony State
The Baked Bean State[1]
Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin)
By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty
State song(s): All Hail to Massachusetts
Map of the United States with Massachusetts highlighted
Official languageEnglish[2]
Spoken languages
DemonymBay Stater (official)[4] Massachusite (traditional)[5][6]
(and largest city)
Largest metroGreater Boston
AreaRanked 44th
 • Total10,565[7] sq mi
(27,337 km2)
 • Width183 miles (295 km)
 • Length108 miles (174 km)
 • % water26.1
 • Latitude41° 14′ N to 42° 53′ N
 • Longitude69° 56′ W to 73° 30′ W
PopulationRanked 15th
 • Total6,902,149 (2018)
 • Density840/sq mi  (324/km2)
Ranked 3rd
 • Median household income$77,385[8] (5th)
 • Highest pointMount Greylock[9][10]
3,489 ft (1063.4 m)
 • Mean500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lowest pointAtlantic Ocean
Sea level
Before statehoodProvince of Massachusetts Bay
Admitted to the UnionFebruary 6, 1788 (6th)
GovernorCharlie Baker (R)
Lieutenant GovernorKaryn Polito (R)
LegislatureGeneral Court
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsElizabeth Warren (D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. House delegation9 Democrats (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC −5/−4
Interactive map of Massachusetts
Massachusetts state symbols
Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Seal of Massachusetts.svg
Living insignia
BirdBlack-capped chickadee,[11] wild turkey[12][13]
MammalRight whale,[17] Morgan horse,[18] Tabby cat,[19] Boston Terrier[20]
ReptileGarter snake[13][21]
TreeAmerican elm[13][22]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageCranberry juice[13][23]
ColorsBlue, green, cranberry[13][24]
DanceSquare dance[13][25]
FoodCranberry,[26] corn muffin,[13][27] navy bean,[28] Boston cream pie,[29] chocolate chip cookie,[30] Boston cream doughnut[31]
FossilDinosaur Tracks[32]
"Blue Hills of Massachusetts"[13][35]
RockRolling Rock[13][36]
ShellNew England Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata[13][39]
ShipSchooner Ernestina [13]
SloganMake It Yours,
The Spirit of America[37]
State route marker
Massachusetts state route marker
State quarter
Massachusetts quarter dollar coin
Released in 2000[40]
Lists of United States state symbols

Massachusetts (s/ (About this soundlisten), s/), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry.[41] Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade,[42] Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution.[43] During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services.[44] Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[45]

Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.[46] Plymouth was founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[47] In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts.[48] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.[49] In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.[50] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[51] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,[52] and transcendentalist[53] movements.[54] In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.[55][56] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.[57] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[58] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[59] and Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.[60] Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.[61][62] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.[63] Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance,[64] and the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive.[65]


The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, likely derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart).[66] It has been translated as "near the great hill",[67] "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill which is located on the boundary of Milton and Canton.[68][69] Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, and Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621.[70][71]

The official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".[72] While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications.[73] Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states.[74] It may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. (The "State of Massachusetts Bay" was in the first draft that had been rejected by the legislature.)[75]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Massachusetts
አማርኛ: ማሣቹሰትስ
Ænglisc: Massachusetts
العربية: ماساتشوستس
aragonés: Massachusetts
arpetan: Massachusetts
asturianu: Massachusetts
Avañe'ẽ: Massachusetts
azərbaycanca: Massaçusets
Bân-lâm-gú: Massachusetts
башҡортса: Массачусетс
беларуская: Масачусетс
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Масачусэтс
भोजपुरी: मैसाचुसेट्स
Bikol Central: Massachusetts
Bislama: Massachusetts
български: Масачузетс
Boarisch: Massachusetts
bosanski: Massachusetts
brezhoneg: Massachusetts
català: Massachusetts
Чӑвашла: Массачусетс
Cebuano: Massachusetts
čeština: Massachusetts
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Massachusetts
Cymraeg: Massachusetts
davvisámegiella: Massachusetts
Deutsch: Massachusetts
Ελληνικά: Μασαχουσέτη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Massachusetts
español: Massachusetts
Esperanto: Masaĉuseco
euskara: Massachusetts
فارسی: ماساچوست
Fiji Hindi: Massachusetts
føroyskt: Massachusetts
français: Massachusetts
Gaeilge: Massachusetts
Gàidhlig: Massachusetts
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Massachusetts
хальмг: Масачуусиц
Hawaiʻi: Makakukeka
հայերեն: Մասաչուսեթս
hrvatski: Massachusetts
Ilokano: Massachusetts
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ম্যাসাচুসেট্‌স
Bahasa Indonesia: Massachusetts
interlingua: Massachusetts
Interlingue: Massachusetts
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒫᓵᓲᓰᑦᔅ
Iñupiak: Massachusetts
isiXhosa: IMasetshusethi
isiZulu: Massachusetts
íslenska: Massachusetts
italiano: Massachusetts
עברית: מסצ'וסטס
Kabɩyɛ: Masacusɛtɩsɩ
Kapampangan: Massachusetts
ქართული: მასაჩუსეტსი
қазақша: Массачусетс
kernowek: Massachusetts
Kiswahili: Massachusetts
Kreyòl ayisyen: Masachosèt
Кыргызча: Массачусетс
кырык мары: Массачусетс
لۊری شومالی: ماساچوسئت
latviešu: Masačūsetsa
Lëtzebuergesch: Massachusetts
lietuvių: Masačusetsas
Limburgs: Massachusetts
Lingua Franca Nova: Massachusetts
lumbaart: Massachusetts
македонски: Масачусетс
Malagasy: Massachusetts
მარგალური: მასაჩუსეტსი
مازِرونی: ماساچوست
Bahasa Melayu: Massachusetts
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Massachusetts
Dorerin Naoero: Massachusetts
Nederlands: Massachusetts
Nedersaksies: Massachusetts
नेपाल भाषा: म्यासेच्युसेत्स
нохчийн: Массачусетс
Nordfriisk: Massachusetts
norsk nynorsk: Massachusetts
occitan: Massachusetts
олык марий: Массачусетс
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Massachusetts
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੈਸਾਚੂਸਟਸ
پنجابی: میساچیوسٹس
Papiamentu: Massachusetts
Piemontèis: Massachusetts
Plattdüütsch: Massachusetts
português: Massachusetts
română: Massachusetts
rumantsch: Massachusetts
русский: Массачусетс
саха тыла: Массачусеттс
संस्कृतम्: मासचुसेट्‍स
Seeltersk: Massachusetts
sicilianu: Massachusetts
Simple English: Massachusetts
slovenčina: Massachusetts
slovenščina: Massachusetts
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Масачоусєтсъ
ślůnski: Massachusetts
српски / srpski: Масачусетс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Massachusetts
svenska: Massachusetts
Tagalog: Massachusetts
татарча/tatarça: Массачусетс
Türkçe: Massachusetts
українська: Массачусетс
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Massachuséts Shitati
Vahcuengh: Massachusetts
vèneto: Massachusetts
Tiếng Việt: Massachusetts
Volapük: Massachusetts
Winaray: Massachusetts
吴语: 马萨诸塞
Yorùbá: Massachusetts
粵語: 麻省
Zeêuws: Massachusetts
žemaitėška: Masačusetsos