Massachusetts state symbols Living insignia Bird , Black-capped chickadee  wild turkey   Fish Cod   Flower Mayflower   Insect Ladybug   Mammal , Right whale  , Morgan horse  , Tabby cat  Boston Terrier  Reptile Garter snake   Tree American elm   Inanimate insignia Beverage Cranberry juice   Colors Blue, green, cranberry   Dance Square dance   Food , Cranberry corn  , muffin   , navy bean  , Boston cream pie  , chocolate chip cookie  Boston cream doughnut  Fossil  Gemstone Rhodonite   Mineral Babingtonite   Poem "Blue Hills of Massachusetts"   Rock Rolling Rock   Shell , New England Neptune Neptunea lyrata decemcostata   Ship Schooner Ernestina  Slogan Make It Yours, The Spirit of America  Soil Paxton  Sport Basketball  State route marker State quarter Lists of United States state symbols Massachusetts ( / (, ) listen /), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous in the state region of the New England . It is bordered by the northeastern United States to the east, the states of Atlantic Ocean and Connecticut to the south, Rhode Island and New Hampshire to the north, and Vermont to the west. The state is named after the New York tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Massachusett . Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American Greater Boston , history , and academia . industry Originally dependent on  , agriculture and fishing , trade Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the  . Industrial Revolution During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services.  Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in  , biotechnology , engineering , higher education , and finance . maritime trade  was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Plymouth , passengers of the Pilgrims . In 1692, the town of Mayflower and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of Salem , the mass hysteria . Salem witch trials In 1777, General  founded the Henry Knox , which during the Springfield Armory catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including Industrial Revolution . interchangeable parts In 1786,  , a populist revolt led by disaffected Shays' Rebellion veterans, influenced the American Revolutionary War . United States Constitutional Convention In the 18th century, the Protestant  , which swept the First Great Awakening , originated from the pulpit of Atlantic World preacher Northampton . Jonathan Edwards In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"  for the agitation there that led to the  . American Revolution
The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the
. Before the United States , Massachusetts was a center for the American Civil War , abolitionist , temperance and  transcendentalist movements.  In the late 19th century, the sports of  and basketball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of volleyball and Springfield , respectively. Holyoke  In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize  as a result of the decision in same-sex marriage by the Goodridge v. Department of Public Health . Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the  and Adams families. Kennedy in Harvard University is the oldest institution of Cambridge , higher learning in the United States with the largest  of any university, financial endowment and  has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Harvard Law School . Supreme Court of the United States  in Kendall Square has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of Cambridge entrepreneurial and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. start-ups  Both Harvard University and the  , also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the world. academic institutions Massachusetts' public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance,  and the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the nation for citizens to live.  
Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts
was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusetts Bay Colony , likely derived from a Wôpanâak word Massachusett muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + - ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart). It has been translated as "near the great hill",  "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the  , or in particular the Blue Hills which is located on the boundary of Great Blue Hill and Milton . Canton  Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as  Moswetuset—from the name of the (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in Moswetuset Hummock , where Quincy commander Plymouth Colony , hired English military officer, and Myles Standish , part of the now disappeared Squanto of the Patuxet band , met Chief Wampanoag peoples in 1621. Chickatawbut 
The official name of the state is the "
of Massachusetts". Commonwealth While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications.  Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states.  It may have been chosen by  for the second draft of the John Adams because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a Massachusetts Constitution , in contrast to the republic the former American colonies were fighting against. (The "State of Massachusetts Bay" was in the first draft that had been rejected by the legislature.) monarchy