Mass in the Catholic Church

A 15th-century Mass

The Mass, known more fully as the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is the central liturgical ritual in the Roman Catholic Church where the bread and wine are consecrated and become the body and blood of Christ. As defined by the Church at the Council of Trent, in the Mass, "The same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross, is present and offered in an unbloody manner."[1] The Church describes the Holy Mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life".[2] It teaches that through consecration by an ordained priest the bread and wine become the sacrificial body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ as the sacrifice on Calvary made truly present once again on the altar. The Catholic Church permits only baptised members in the state of grace (Catholics who have recently confessed all mortal sins) to receive Christ in the Eucharist.[3]

Many of the Roman Catholic Church's other sacraments are administered in the framework of the Holy Mass, such as First Communion, Confirmation, Holy Orders, and Holy Matrimony. The term "Mass" is generally used within the Latin Rite's celebrations of the Eucharist, while the various Eastern Rites use terms such as "Divine Liturgy", "Holy Qurbana", and "Badarak",[4] in accordance with each one's tradition. Since the publication of Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, the Roman Rite has been classified into two forms: the Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite, which uses the liturgy of the Missal issued by Pope John XXIII in 1962, and the Ordinary Form, which uses the Missal revised by Pope Paul VI in 1969.

The term "Mass" is derived from the concluding words of the Roman Rite Mass in Latin: "Ite, missa est" ("Go; it is the dismissal"). The Late Latin word missa substantively corresponds to the classical Latin word missio.[5] In antiquity, missa simply meant "dismissal". In Christian usage, however, it gradually took on a deeper meaning. The word "dismissal" has come to imply a mission.[6]

The Roman Rite Mass is the predominant form used in the Catholic Church and the focus of this article. For information on the theology of the Eucharist and on the Eucharistic liturgy of other Christian denominations, see "Mass (liturgy)", "Eucharist" and "Eucharistic theology". For information on the history and of development of the Mass see Eucharist and Origin of the Eucharist.

Roman Rite Mass

Depiction of the first Mass in Chile, by Pedro Subercaseaux

The following description of the celebration of Mass is limited to the current Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, conducted using the local vernacular language and customs. This version was introduced in 1969 following calls for liturgical reforms by the bishops participating in the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) based on new historical perspectives and biblical studies, and has become the most common form used. This version was introduced to succeed the Tridentine Mass, celebrated in Latin and dating to the liturgical reforms of the Council of Trent (1545–46). The Tridentine Mass, as revised in 1962, is still permitted for use as an Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite. Other historical and minor contemporary Latin Rite Masses have been used in different regions of the world, as well the Eastern Christian forms known as the Divine Liturgy.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC or Catechism) produced in 1994 discusses the importance of the Mass in the Catholic tradition based on the whole history of the Mass and the understanding of it to that time. The United States Catholic Conference edition of the Catechism prefers to call the Mass the "Eucharistic Celebration", after its roots in the celebrational Last Supper. Under this topic in the Subject Index it lists as principal subtopics: commanded by Christ; center of the Church's life; memorial celebration; in the Church from the beginning; participation as Church precept; structure and movement.[7]

Liturgical Texts

The Roman Missal contains the prayers, antiphons and rubrics of the Mass. Earlier editions also contained the Scripture readings, which were then fewer in number. The latest edition of the Roman Missal contains the normal ("ordinary") form of Mass in the Roman Rite[8] and the 1962 edition the Tridentine Mass which, according to the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, may be celebrated as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite.

The Lectionary presents passages from the Bible arranged in the order for reading at each day's Mass. Compared with the scripture readings in the pre-1970 Missal, the modern Lectionary contains a much wider variety of passages, too many to include in the Missal. A Book of the Gospels, also called the Evangeliary,[9] is recommended for the reading from the Gospels, but where this book is not available the Lectionary is used in its place.

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