Mary II of England

Mary II
Mary II - Kneller 1690.jpg
Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1690
Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland ( more...)
Reign 1689 [a] – 28 December 1694
Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II & VII
Successor William III & II
Co-monarch William III & II
Born (1662-04-30)30 April 1662
( N.S.: 10 May 1662)
St James's Palace, London
Died 28 December 1694(1694-12-28) (aged 32)
( N.S.: 7 January 1695)
Kensington Palace, London
Burial 5 March 1695
Westminster Abbey, London
Spouse William III & II (m. 1677)
House Stuart
Father James II & VII
Mother Anne Hyde
Religion Anglicanism

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was joint monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband and first cousin, William III of Orange, from 1689 until her death. William and Mary, both Protestants, became king and queen regnant following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the adoption of the English Bill of Rights and the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of "William and Mary".

Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler.

Early life

Mary, born at St James's Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of the Duke of York (the future King James II & VII), and his first wife, Anne Hyde. Mary's uncle was King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor. She was baptised into the Anglican faith in the Chapel Royal at St James's, and was named after her ancestor, Mary, Queen of Scots. Her godparents included her father's cousin, Prince Rupert of the Rhine. [1] Although her mother bore eight children, all except Mary and her younger sister Anne died very young, and King Charles II had no legitimate children. Consequently, for most of her childhood, Mary was second in line to the throne after her father. [2]

Portrait by Caspar Netscher, 1676, the year before her marriage

The Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669 and the Duchess about eight years earlier, but Mary and Anne were brought up as Anglicans, pursuant to the command of Charles II. [3] They were moved to their own establishment at Richmond Palace, where they were raised by their governess Lady Frances Villiers, with only occasional visits to see their parents at St James's or their grandfather Lord Clarendon at Twickenham. [4] Mary's education, from private tutors, was largely restricted to music, dance, drawing, French, and religious instruction. [5] Her mother died in 1671, and her father remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife Mary of Modena, a Catholic who was only four years older than Mary. [6]

From about the age of nine until her marriage, Mary wrote passionate letters to an older girl, Frances Apsley, the daughter of courtier Sir Allen Apsley. In time, Frances became uncomfortable with the correspondence, [7] and replied more formally. At the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder of Holland, William III of Orange. William was the son of the King's late sister, Mary, Princess Royal, and thus fourth in the line of succession after James, Mary, and Anne. [8] At first, Charles II opposed the alliance with the Dutch ruler—he preferred that Mary wed the heir to the French throne, the Dauphin Louis, thus allying his realms with Catholic France and strengthening the odds of an eventual Catholic successor in Britain; but later, under pressure from Parliament and with a coalition with the Catholic French no longer politically favourable, he approved the proposed union. [9] The Duke of York agreed to the marriage, after pressure from chief minister Lord Danby and the King, who incorrectly assumed that it would improve James's popularity among Protestants. [10] When James told Mary that she was to marry her cousin, "she wept all that afternoon and all the following day". [11]

Other Languages
български: Мария II Стюарт
brezhoneg: Mari II Bro-Saoz
eesti: Mary II
Bahasa Indonesia: Mary II dari Inggris
ქართული: მერი II
Lëtzebuergesch: Mary II. vun England
македонски: Марија II
Bahasa Melayu: Mary II dari England
norsk nynorsk: Maria II av England
संस्कृतम्: मेरी २
Simple English: Mary II of England
српски / srpski: Мери II од Енглеске
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mary II od Engleske
Türkçe: II. Mary
Tiếng Việt: Mary II của Anh
粵語: 瑪麗二世