Names and titles
Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original
Aramaic name מרים,
 The English name "
Mary" comes from the
Greek Μαρία, which is a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament.
In Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the
Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus
miraculously through the
Holy Spirit without
her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the
Blessed Virgin Mary (often abbreviated to "BVM"),
Saint Mary (occasionally), the
Mother of God (primarily in
Western Christianity), the
Theotokos (primarily in
Eastern Christianity), Our Lady (Medieval
Italian: Madonna), and
Queen of Heaven (
Latin: Regina Coeli),
 although the title
"Queen of Heaven" was also a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime (
Jeremiah 44:17-19.) Titles in use vary among
The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are
lit. 'God-bearer' or loosely "Mother of God"),
lit. 'Ever-virgin') as confirmed in the
Second Council of Constantinople in 553, and
 Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title
Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as
The title Theotokos was recognized at the
Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei (Mother of God), with similar patterns for other languages used in the
Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ), in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in
icons. The Council stated that the
Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God".
Some Marian titles have a direct
scriptural basis. For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, who was sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from
King David. The scriptural basis for the term "Queen" can be seen in
Luke 1:32 and the
 Other titles have arisen from
reported miracles, special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples,
Our Lady of Good Counsel,
Our Lady of Navigators, and
Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description.
Islam, she is known as
translit. Maryām), mother of
Isa (Arabic: عيسى بن مريم, translit. ʿĪsā ibn Maryām, lit. 'Jesus, son of Mary'). She is often referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady"; this title is in parallel to sayyiduna ("our lord"), used for the prophets.
 A related term of endearment is Siddiqah,
 meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam.
 She is also called "Tahira", meaning "one who has been purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation (and the only woman) to not be touched by Satan at any point.