NaviesArmiesAir forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
AdmiralGeneralAir chief marshal
Vice admiralLieutenant generalAir marshal
Rear admiralMajor generalAir vice-marshal
CommodoreBrigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
CaptainColonelGroup captain
CommanderLieutenant colonelWing commander
Major or
Squadron leader
LieutenantCaptainFlight lieutenant
junior grade
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
Second lieutenantPilot officer
Officer cadetOfficer cadetFlight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officerSergeantFlight sergeant
Leading seamanCorporal or
SeamanPrivate or
gunner or
Aircraftman or

Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement.


"Marshal" is an ancient loanword from Norman French (cf. modern French maréchal), which in turn is borrowed from Old Frankish *marhskalk (="stable boy, keeper, servant"), being still evident in Middle Dutch maerscalc, marscal, and in modern Dutch maarschalk (="military chief commander"; the meaning influenced by the French use).

It is cognate with Old High German mar(ah)-scalc "id.", modern German (Feld-)Marschall (="military chief commander"; the meaning again influenced by the French use).[1]

It originally and literally meant "horse servant", from Germanic *marha- "horse" (cf. English mare and modern German Mähre, meaning "horse of bad quality") and *skalk- "servant" (cf. Old Engl. scealc "servant, soldier" and outdated German Schalk, meaning "high-ranking servant").[2] This "horse servant" origin is retained in the current French name for farrier: maréchal-ferrant.

The late Roman and Byzantine title of comes stabuli ("count of the stables") was a calque of the Germanic, which became Old French con(n)estable and modern connétable, and, borrowed from the Old French, the English word "constable". Finally, in Byzantium, a marshal with elevated authority, notably a borderlands military command, was also known as an exarch.

Other Languages
العربية: مارشال
asturianu: Mariscal
azərbaycanca: Marşal
Bân-lâm-gú: Marshal
беларуская: Маршал
български: Маршал
Boarisch: Mareschallo
čeština: Maršál
dansk: Marskal
Deutsch: Marschall
eesti: Marssal
Ελληνικά: Στρατάρχης
español: Mariscal
Esperanto: Marŝalo
Frysk: Maarskalk
galego: Mariscal
한국어: 원수 (군사)
հայերեն: Մարշալ
hrvatski: Maršal
íslenska: Marskálkur
italiano: Maresciallo
қазақша: Маршал
Latina: Marescalcus
lietuvių: Maršalas
magyar: Marsall
македонски: Маршал
Bahasa Melayu: Marsyal
монгол: Маршал
norsk: Marskalk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Marshal
پښتو: مارشال
português: Marechal
română: Mareșal
русский: Маршал
Scots: Marshal
slovenčina: Maršal
slovenščina: Maršal
српски / srpski: Маршал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Maršal
svenska: Marskalk
Türkçe: Mareşal
українська: Маршал
اردو: سالار
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مارشال
Tiếng Việt: Nguyên soái
中文: 元帅