Marseille

Marseille
Prefecture and commune
Clockwise from top: Notre-Dame de la GardeOld PortCMA CGM TowerCalanque of Sugiton
Flag of Marseille
Flag
Coat of arms of Marseille
Coat of arms
Motto(s): Actibus immensis urbs fulget massiliensis
"The city of Marseille shines from its great achievements"
Marseille is located in France
Marseille
Marseille
Location within Provence-A.-C.d'A. region
Marseille is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Marseille
Marseille
Coordinates: 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E / 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E / 43.2964; 5.37
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Marseille
Canton 12 cantons
Intercommunality Aix-Marseille-Provence
Government
 • Mayor (since 1995) Jean-Claude Gaudin ( LR)
Area1 240.62 km2 (92.90 sq mi)
 • Urban (2010) 1,731.91 km2 (668.69 sq mi)
 • Metro (2010) 3,173.51 km2 (1,225.30 sq mi)
Population (Jan. 2013 [1])2 855,393
 • Rank 2nd after Paris
 • Density 3,600/km2 (9,200/sq mi)
 •  Urban (2014) 1,578,484 [2]
 •  Metro (Jan. 2011) 1,831,500 [3]
Demonym(s) Marseillais (French)
Marselhés (Occitan)
Massiliot (ancient)
Time zone CET ( UTC+1)
 • Summer ( DST) CEST ( UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code 13055 /13001-13016
Dialling codes 0491 or 0496
Website marseille.fr

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Marseille ( /; French:  [maʁsɛj] ( About this sound  listen), locally  [mɑχˈsɛjə]; Provençal: Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ]), also known in British English as Marseilles, is the second-largest city of France. The capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, it is located on France's south coast and had a population of 852,516 in 2012, [1] and an area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi), the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. [3]

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia [4] ( Greek: Μασσαλία, Massalía), [5][ page needed] [6] Marseille was the most important trading centre in the region and the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture, together with Košice, Slovakia, in 2013. It hosted the FIFA World Cup 1998 and the UEFA Euro 2016, and it was the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to several campuses of Aix-Marseille University and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix-Marseille-Provence.

Geography

View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche ( 7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago and the Château d'If in the background
Marseille's Old Port (Vieux-Port) towards Notre-Dame de la Garde

Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Further east still are the Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; further west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre. [7]

Aerial view of Marseille

The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Further out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station— Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière. [7]

Climate

Marseille has a Mediterranean climate ( Köppen Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July. [8]

Marseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France is around 1,950 hours. It is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.

The hottest temperature was 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave, but 100 °F (38 °C) or 20 °F (−7 °C) temperatures are uncommon.

Climate data for Marseille (Longchamp observatory) 43°18'21.2"N 5°23'37.1"E (sunshine hours 1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
22.7
(72.9)
26.1
(79)
28.5
(83.3)
33.2
(91.8)
36.9
(98.4)
40.6
(105.1)
38.6
(101.5)
33.8
(92.8)
30.9
(87.6)
24.3
(75.7)
23.1
(73.6)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
15.5
(59.9)
17.9
(64.2)
22.2
(72)
25.7
(78.3)
29.1
(84.4)
28.7
(83.7)
25.0
(77)
20.4
(68.7)
15.0
(59)
12.6
(54.7)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.1
(48.4)
11.2
(52.2)
13.4
(56.1)
17.5
(63.5)
20.8
(69.4)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
20.4
(68.7)
16.3
(61.3)
11.5
(52.7)
9.3
(48.7)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
5.3
(41.5)
6.9
(44.4)
8.9
(48)
12.7
(54.9)
16.0
(60.8)
18.9
(66)
18.7
(65.7)
15.8
(60.4)
12.3
(54.1)
7.9
(46.2)
6.0
(42.8)
11.2
(52.2)
Record low °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−14.3
(6.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.0
(32)
7.7
(45.9)
9.0
(48.2)
8.1
(46.6)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.1
(30)
−6.0
(21.2)
−11.4
(11.5)
−14.3
(6.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.4
(2.575)
47.3
(1.862)
48.7
(1.917)
55.2
(2.173)
41.0
(1.614)
26.8
(1.055)
9.1
(0.358)
34.0
(1.339)
65.5
(2.579)
91.6
(3.606)
55.2
(2.173)
52.3
(2.059)
592.2
(23.315)
Average precipitation days 6.1 5.1 4.9 6.3 4.6 3.3 1.4 2.7 3.8 6.3 5.5 5.8 55.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 67 65 64 63 59 62 69 74 75 77 68.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150.0 155.5 215.1 244.8 292.5 326.2 366.4 327.4 254.3 204.5 155.5 143.3 2,835.5
Source: , [9] Météo France 1971–2000 raw averages for Longchamp observatory, extremes 1881–31 December 2004 (sun and humidity 1961–1990 at Marignane) [10]
Climate data for Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) (1981–2010) 43°26'18.4"N 5°12'51.9"E
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.5
(54.5)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.9
(73.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
25.5
(77.9)
20.9
(69.6)
15.1
(59.2)
11.9
(53.4)
20.1
(68.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.2
(45)
8.1
(46.6)
11.0
(51.8)
13.9
(57)
18.0
(64.4)
21.9
(71.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.4
(75.9)
20.6
(69.1)
16.7
(62.1)
11.2
(52.2)
7.9
(46.2)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
3.6
(38.5)
6.2
(43.2)
9.1
(48.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.0
(66.2)
15.7
(60.3)
12.4
(54.3)
7.2
(45)
4.0
(39.2)
10.8
(51.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.0
(1.89)
31.4
(1.236)
30.1
(1.185)
53.7
(2.114)
40.9
(1.61)
24.2
(0.953)
9.2
(0.362)
31.0
(1.22)
77.1
(3.035)
67.2
(2.646)
55.6
(2.189)
45.5
(1.791)
513.9
(20.232)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5.3 4.5 3.9 6.0 4.5 2.9 1.3 2.7 4.5 6.2 5.9 5.5 53.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 151 166 230 240 288 329 366 327 257 189 154 138 2,853
Source: Metereological data for Marseille–Marignane, from 1981 to 2010 November 2015
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Marseille
አማርኛ: ማርሴ
العربية: مارسيليا
aragonés: Marsiella
arpetan: Marselye
asturianu: Marsella
azərbaycanca: Marsel
تۆرکجه: مارسی
Bân-lâm-gú: Marseille
башҡортса: Марсель
беларуская: Марсель
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Марсэль
български: Марсилия
Boarisch: Marseille
bosanski: Marseille
brezhoneg: Marselha
català: Marsella
Чӑвашла: Марсель
Cebuano: Marseille
čeština: Marseille
corsu: Marseglia
Cymraeg: Marseille
dansk: Marseille
Deutsch: Marseille
dolnoserbski: Marseille
eesti: Marseille
Ελληνικά: Μασσαλία
эрзянь: Марсель ош
español: Marsella
Esperanto: Marsejlo
estremeñu: Marsella
euskara: Marseilla
فارسی: مارسی
français: Marseille
Frysk: Marseille
Gaeilge: Marseille
Gàidhlig: Marseille
galego: Marsella
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Marseille
한국어: 마르세유
Hausa: Marseille
Հայերեն: Մարսել
हिन्दी: मार्सैय
hornjoserbsce: Marseille
hrvatski: Marseille
Ilokano: Marseille
Bahasa Indonesia: Marseille
Interlingue: Marseille
Ирон: Марсель
íslenska: Marseille
italiano: Marsiglia
עברית: מרסיי
Basa Jawa: Marseille
kalaallisut: Marseille
ქართული: მარსელი
қазақша: Марсель
Kiswahili: Marseille
Kongo: Marseille
Kreyòl ayisyen: Masey
Kurdî: Marsêy
Кыргызча: Марсель
Ladino: Marseya
Latina: Massilia
latviešu: Marseļa
Lëtzebuergesch: Marseille
lietuvių: Marselis
Ligure: Marseggia
Limburgs: Marseille
lingála: Marseille
lumbaart: Marseja
magyar: Marseille
македонски: Марсеј
Malagasy: Marseille
മലയാളം: മാർസേയ്
मराठी: मार्सेल
მარგალური: მარსელი
مصرى: مرسيليا
مازِرونی: مارسی
Bahasa Melayu: Marseille
монгол: Марсель
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မာဆေးမြို့
Nāhuatl: Marseille
Nederlands: Marseille
日本語: マルセイユ
Napulitano: Marsiglia
нохчийн: Марсель
Nordfriisk: Marseille
norsk: Marseille
norsk nynorsk: Marseille
Nouormand: Marsêle
occitan: Marselha
олык марий: Марсель
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Marsel
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਰਸੇਈ
پنجابی: مارسیلز
Piemontèis: Marsèja
Plattdüütsch: Marseille
polski: Marsylia
Ποντιακά: Μασσαλία
português: Marselha
Qaraqalpaqsha: Marsel
română: Marsilia
Runa Simi: Marseille
русский: Марсель
sardu: Marsiglia
Scots: Marseille
Seeltersk: Marselha
shqip: Marseja
sicilianu: Marsigghia
Simple English: Marseille
slovenčina: Marseille
slovenščina: Marseille
ślůnski: Marsylijo
کوردی: مارسیلیا
српски / srpski: Марсељ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Marseille
suomi: Marseille
svenska: Marseille
Tagalog: Marsella
தமிழ்: மர்சேய்
Taqbaylit: Marseille
татарча/tatarça: Марсель
Türkçe: Marsilya
українська: Марсель
اردو: مارسئی
vèneto: Marsegia
vepsän kel’: Marsel'
Tiếng Việt: Marseille
Volapük: Marseille
文言: 馬賽
West-Vlams: Marseille
Winaray: Marseille
吴语: 马赛
ייִדיש: מארסיי
Yorùbá: Marseille
粵語: 馬賽
Zeêuws: Marseille
中文: 马赛