Head of an anonymous priest of Serapis. Plutarch linked Manetho with the Ptolemaic cult of Serapis.[1] Altes Museum, Berlin.

Manetho (/; Koinē Greek: Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos (Coptic: ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ, romanized: džemnouti[2]) who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt) in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his work during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos, but no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.


The original Egyptian version of Manetho's name is lost, but some speculate it means "Truth of Thoth", "Gift of Thoth", "Beloved of Thoth", "Beloved of Neith", or "Lover of Neith".[3] Less accepted proposals are Myinyu-heter ("Horseherd" or "Groom") and Ma'ani-Djehuti ("I have seen Thoth"). In the Greek language, the earliest fragments (the inscription of uncertain date on the base of a marble bust from the temple of Serapis at Carthage[4] and the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus of the 1st century AD) writes his name as Μανέθων Manethōn, so the Latinised rendering of his name here is given as Manetho (the same way that Platōn is rendered "Plato"). Other Greek renderings include Manethōs, Manethō, Manethos, Manēthōs, Manēthōn, and Manethōth. In Latin it is written as Manethon, Manethos, Manethonus, and Manetos.[citation needed]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Manetho
العربية: مانيتون
беларуская: Манефон
български: Манетон
català: Manethó
čeština: Manehto
dansk: Manethon
Deutsch: Manetho
Ελληνικά: Μανέθων
español: Manetón
Esperanto: Manetono
euskara: Maneton
فارسی: مان‌تو
galego: Manetón
한국어: 마네토
հայերեն: Մանեթոն
hrvatski: Maneton
Bahasa Indonesia: Manetho
íslenska: Maneþon
italiano: Manetone
עברית: מנתון
Jawa: Manetho
ქართული: მანეთონი
Latina: Manetho
lietuvių: Maneto
magyar: Manethón
مصرى: مانيتون
Bahasa Melayu: Manetho
Mirandés: Máneton
Nederlands: Manetho
日本語: マネト
norsk: Manetho
occitan: Maneton
polski: Manethon
português: Manetão
română: Manetho
русский: Манефон
Scots: Manetho
shqip: Manetho
Simple English: Manetho
slovenčina: Manehto
slovenščina: Maneton
српски / srpski: Манетон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manethon
suomi: Manetho
svenska: Manetho
Tagalog: Manetho
Türkçe: Manetho
українська: Манефон
Tiếng Việt: Manetho
Winaray: Manetho
吴语: 曼涅托
Yorùbá: Manetho
中文: 曼涅托