Manchu people

Manchu
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
Total population
10,430,000
Regions with significant populations
 Mainland China10,410,585[1]
 Taiwan12,000[2]
 Hong Kong1,000[3]
 United States379[4]
Languages
Mandarin Chinese
Manchu[note 1]
Religion
Manchu shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, and Roman Catholic.
Related ethnic groups
Evenks, Nanai, Oroqen, Sibe, Udege, and other Tungusic peoples

The Manchu[note 2] (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.[16] They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.[17][18] The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.

Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country.[1] They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning and one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen[note 3] and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.[20]

Etymology of the ethnonym

The Jiu Manzhou Dang contains the earliest use of Manchu.[21] However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable.[22] According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.[23] The Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even wrote several poems on the subject.[24]

Meng Sen, a famous scholar of the Qing dynasty, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" was also related to Li Manzhu (李滿住), the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens.[25] It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of the Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind.[26]

Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" (ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ) which means strong and "ju" (ᠵᡠ) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".[27]

There are other hypotheses, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.[28][29][30]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mantsjoes
العربية: مانشو (قومية)
aragonés: Manchús
azərbaycanca: Mancurlar
تۆرکجه: مانجور‌لار
Bân-lâm-gú: Boán-chiu-cho̍k
беларуская: Маньчжуры
български: Манджури
català: Manxús
čeština: Mandžuové
dansk: Manchuere
Deutsch: Mandschu
dolnoserbski: Mandžu (lud)
eesti: Mandžud
Ελληνικά: Μαντσού
español: Manchú
Esperanto: Manĉuroj
euskara: Mantxu
فارسی: منچو
français: Mandchous
Gaeilge: Manchúraigh
galego: Pobo manchú
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mân-chû-chhu̍k
한국어: 만주족
հայերեն: Մանջուրներ
हिन्दी: मांचु लोग
hrvatski: Mandžurci
Bahasa Indonesia: Suku Manchu
italiano: Manciù
Basa Jawa: Wong Manchu
қазақша: Маньчжурлар
Кыргызча: Манжурлар
latviešu: Mandžūri
lietuvių: Mandžiūrai
magyar: Mandzsuk
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Manchu
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Muāng-cŭk
Nederlands: Mantsjoes
नेपाली: मन्जु
日本語: 満州民族
norsk: Mandsjuer
norsk nynorsk: Mandsjuar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਂਛੂ ਲੋਕ
پنجابی: مانچو
polski: Mandżurowie
português: Manchus
русский: Маньчжуры
Simple English: Manchu
slovenčina: Mandžuovia
ślůnski: Mandżury
српски / srpski: Mandžurci
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mandžurci
suomi: Mantšut
svenska: Manchuer
Türkçe: Mançular
українська: Маньчжури
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مانجۇ مىللىتى
Tiếng Việt: Người Mãn
文言: 滿洲族
吴语: 满族
粵語: 滿族
中文: 满族