Manchester

Manchester
City and Metropolitan borough
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Manchester City Centre, Beetham Tower, Manchester Civil Justice Centre, Midland Hotel, One Angel Square, Manchester Town Hall
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Manchester City Centre, Beetham Tower, Manchester Civil Justice Centre, Midland Hotel, One Angel Square, Manchester Town Hall
Coat of arms of Manchester
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Cottonopolis", "Warehouse City", Madchester, "The Rainy City"
Motto(s): "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort"
Manchester shown within Greater Manchester
Manchester shown within Greater Manchester
Manchester is located in North West of England
Manchester
Manchester
Location of Manchester within the United Kingdom
Manchester is located in the United Kingdom
Manchester
Manchester
Manchester (the United Kingdom)
Manchester is located in Europe
Manchester
Manchester
Manchester (Europe)
Coordinates: 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53°28′46″N 2°14′43″W / 53.47944; -2.24528
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionNorth West England
City regionManchester
Ceremonial countyGreater Manchester
Historic countySalford Hundred, Lancashire
(north of River Mersey)
Cheshire
(south of River Mersey)
Founded1st century
Town charter1301
City status29 March 1853
Administrative HQManchester (Town Hall)
Government
 • TypeMetropolitan borough
 • BodyManchester City Council
 • LeadershipLeader and Cabinet
 • ExecutiveLabour
 • LeaderSir Richard Leese
 • Lord MayorEddy Newman[1]
 • Chief ExecutiveJoanne Roney
Area
 • City44.7 sq mi (115.7 km2)
 • Urban243.4 sq mi (630.3 km2)
Area rank204th
Elevation125 ft (38 m)
Population (mid-2016 est.)
 • City541,300
 • Rank5th
 • Density12,100/sq mi (4,680/km2)
 • Urban2,553,379 (2nd)
 • Urban density10,490/sq mi (4,051/km2)
 • Metro2,856,000 (List of metropolitan areas in Europe)
 • Ethnicity[2]White groups (66.7% )
Asian (14.4%)
Black (8.6%)
Mixed (4.7%)
Chinese (2.7%)
Arab (1.9%)
Other (1.2%)
Demonym(s)Mancunian
Manc (colloq.)
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)
Postcode areasM
Dialling code0161
ISO 3166 codeGB-MAN
GSS codeE08000003
NUTS 3 codeUKD33
OS grid referenceSJ838980
MotorwaysM56
M60
A57(M)
A635(M)
Trunk primary routesA5103
Major railway stationsManchester Airport (B)
Manchester Oxford Road (C1)
Manchester Piccadilly (A)
Manchester Victoria (B)
TramwaysMetrolink
International airportsManchester (MAN)
GDPUS$ 95.3 billion[3]
– Per capitaUS$ 38,233[3]
MPsGraham Stringer (L)
Lucy Powell (L)
Afzal Khan (L)
Jeff Smith (L)
Mike Kane (L)
Councillors96
European ParliamentNorth West England
Police areaGreater Manchester
Fire serviceGreater Manchester
Ambulance serviceNorth West
Websitewww.manchester.gov.uk

Manchester (s-/)[4][5] is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300 as of 2015.[6] It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.8 million.[7] Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. It was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century.[8] Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution,[9] and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.[10]

Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 58 kilometres (36 mi) to the west. Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.[11]

In 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London.[12] Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK, after London and Edinburgh.[13] It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station and scientists first split the atom, developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

Name

The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians (n/). These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill") or from mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh.[14] The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster ("fort; fortified town").[15]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Manchester
አማርኛ: ማንችስተር
Ænglisc: Mameceaster
العربية: مانشستر
aragonés: Manchester
armãneashti: Manchester
asturianu: Mánchester
azərbaycanca: Mançester
تۆرکجه: منچستر
Bân-lâm-gú: Manchester
беларуская: Манчэстэр
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Манчэстэр
български: Манчестър
bosanski: Manchester
brezhoneg: Manchester
català: Manchester
čeština: Manchester
Cymraeg: Manceinion
dansk: Manchester
Deutsch: Manchester
eesti: Manchester
Ελληνικά: Μάντσεστερ
español: Mánchester
Esperanto: Manĉestro
estremeñu: Manchester
euskara: Manchester
فارسی: منچستر
føroyskt: Manchester
français: Manchester
Frysk: Manchester
Gaeilge: Manchain
Gaelg: Manchuin
Gàidhlig: Manchester
galego: Manchester
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Manchester
한국어: 맨체스터
Hausa: Manchester
Հայերեն: Մանչեստր
हिन्दी: मैन्चेस्टर
hrvatski: Manchester
Bahasa Indonesia: Manchester
Interlingue: Manchester
íslenska: Manchester
italiano: Manchester
עברית: מנצ'סטר
ქართული: მანჩესტერი
қазақша: Манчестер
Kiswahili: Manchester
Кыргызча: Манчестер
Latina: Mancunium
latviešu: Mančestra
lietuvių: Mančesteris
Limburgs: Manchester
magyar: Manchester
македонски: Манчестер
मराठी: मँचेस्टर
მარგალური: მანჩესტერი
مصرى: مانشستر
مازِرونی: منچستر
Bahasa Melayu: Manchester
монгол: Манчестер
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မန်ချက်စတာမြို့
Nederlands: Manchester
Nedersaksies: Mesjester (Engeland)
нохчийн: Манчестер
norsk: Manchester
norsk nynorsk: Manchester
Nouormand: Manchêtre
occitan: Manchester
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Manchester
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਨਚੈਸਟਰ
پنجابی: مانچسٹر
ភាសាខ្មែរ: មែនឈេសទ័រ
Piemontèis: Manchester
polski: Manchester
português: Manchester
Qaraqalpaqsha: Manchester
română: Manchester
Runa Simi: Manchester
русский: Манчестер
sardu: Manchester
Scots: Manchester
shqip: Manchester
sicilianu: Manchester
Simple English: Manchester
slovenčina: Manchester
slovenščina: Manchester
ślůnski: Manchester
Soomaaliga: Manchester
کوردی: مەنچستەر
српски / srpski: Манчестер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Manchester
suomi: Manchester
svenska: Manchester
Tagalog: Manchester
Taqbaylit: Manchester
татарча/tatarça: Mançester
తెలుగు: మాంచెస్టర్
Türkçe: Manchester
українська: Манчестер
اردو: مانچسٹر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Manchéstér
vèneto: Manchester
vepsän kel’: Mančester
Tiếng Việt: Manchester
Volapük: Manchester
Winaray: Manchester
吴语: 曼彻斯特
ייִדיש: מאנטשעסטער
粵語: 曼徹斯特
Zeêuws: Manchester
中文: 曼彻斯特
Lingua Franca Nova: Manchester