Maltose

Maltose
α-Maltose
α-Maltose
β-Maltose
β-Maltose
Names
IUPAC name
(3R,4R,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxane-2,3,4-triol
Other names
4-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucose
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard100.000.651
EC Number200-716-5
UNII
Properties[1]
C12H22O11
Molar mass342.30 g·mol−1
AppearanceWhite powder or crystals
Density1.54 g/cm3
Melting point 160 to 165 °C (320 to 329 °F; 433 to 438 K) (anhydrous)
102–103 °C (monohydrate)
1.080 g/mL (20 °C)
+140.7° (H2O, c = 10)
Hazards
Safety data sheetExternal MSDS
Related compounds
Related
Sucrose
Lactose
Trehalose
Cellobiose
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Amylase reaction consisting of hydrolyzing amylose, producing maltose

Maltose (s/[2] or z/[3]), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt.[4] Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.[5]

History

Maltose was 'discovered' by Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut, although this discovery was not widely accepted until it was confirmed in 1872 by Irish chemist and brewer Cornelius O'Sullivan.[5][6] Its name comes from malt, combined with the suffix '-ose' which is used in names of sugars and other carbohydrates.[4]

Maltose making and use in China goes as far back as the Shang dynasty. In Japan, the use of maltose has been recorded since the period of Emperor Jimmu.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Maltose
العربية: مالتوز
تۆرکجه: مالتوز
Bân-lâm-gú: Be̍h-gê-thn̂g
беларуская: Мальтоза
български: Малтоза
bosanski: Maltoza
català: Maltosa
čeština: Maltóza
dansk: Maltose
Deutsch: Maltose
eesti: Maltoos
Ελληνικά: Μαλτόζη
español: Maltosa
Esperanto: Maltozo
euskara: Maltosa
فارسی: مالتوز
français: Maltose
Gaeilge: Maltós
galego: Maltosa
한국어: 말토스
հայերեն: Մալթոզ
hrvatski: Maltoza
Bahasa Indonesia: Maltosa
íslenska: Maltósi
italiano: Maltosio
עברית: מלטוז
қазақша: Мальтоза
Кыргызча: Мальтоза
Latina: Maltosum
latviešu: Maltoze
Lëtzebuergesch: Maltos
lietuvių: Maltozė
Limburgs: Maltsókker
magyar: Maltóz
Bahasa Melayu: Maltosa
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Măk-ngà-tòng
Nederlands: Maltose
日本語: マルトース
norsk: Maltose
norsk nynorsk: Maltsukker
occitan: Maltòsa
polski: Maltoza
português: Maltose
română: Maltoză
русский: Мальтоза
Scots: Maltose
shqip: Maltoza
සිංහල: මෝල්ටෝස්
Simple English: Maltose
slovenčina: Maltóza
slovenščina: Maltoza
српски / srpski: Малтоза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Maltoza
suomi: Maltoosi
svenska: Maltos
Türkçe: Maltoz
українська: Мальтоза
Tiếng Việt: Kẹo mạch nha
粵語: 麥芽醣
中文: 麥芽糖