Malala Yousafzai

Malala Yousafzai
Shinzō Abe and Malala Yousafzai (1) Cropped.jpg
Yousafzai in 2019
Native name
ملاله یوسفزۍ
Born (1997-07-12) 12 July 1997 (age 22)
Mingora, Swat, Pakistan
ResidenceBirmingham, England, UK
NationalityPakistani
Citizenship
EducationLady Margaret Hall, Oxford
OccupationActivist for female education, former blogger for BBC Urdu and student
OrganisationMalala Fund
Known forActivist for the right to education, especially female education
Parent(s)
Awards
Websitewww.malala.org

Malala Yousafzai (Urdu: ملالہ یوسفزئی‎; Pashto: ملاله یوسفزۍ[məˈlaːlə jusəf ˈzəj];[2] born 12 July 1997),[2][3] also known mononymously as Malala, is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate.[4] She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has grown into an international movement, and according to former Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, she has become "the most prominent citizen" of the country.[5]

Yousafzai was born to a Pashtun family in Mingora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Her family came to run a chain of schools in the region. Considering Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Benazir Bhutto as her role models, she was particularly inspired by her father's thoughts and humanitarian work.[6] In early 2009, when she was 11–12, she wrote a blog under a pseudonym for the BBC Urdu detailing her life during the Taliban occupation of Swat. The following summer, journalist Adam B. Ellick made a New York Times documentary[3] about her life as the Pakistani military intervened in the region. She rose in prominence, giving interviews in print and on television, and she was nominated for the International Children's Peace Prize by activist Desmond Tutu.

On 9 October 2012, while on a bus in the Swat District, after taking an exam, Yousafzai and two other girls were shot by a Taliban gunman in an assassination attempt in retaliation for her activism; the gunman fled the scene. Yousafzai was hit in the head with a bullet and remained unconscious and in critical condition at the Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology, but her condition later improved enough for her to be transferred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, UK.[7] The attempt on her life sparked an international outpouring of support for Yousafzai. Deutsche Welle reported in January 2013 that Yousafzai may have become "the most famous teenager in the world".[8] Weeks after the attempted murder, a group of fifty leading Muslim clerics in Pakistan issued a fatwā against those who tried to kill her.[9] The Taliban was internationally denounced by governments, human rights organizations and feminist groups. Taliban officials responded to condemnation by further denouncing Yousafzai, indicating plans for a possible second assassination attempt, which was justified as a religious obligation. Their statements resulted in further international condemnation.[citation needed]

Following her recovery, Yousafzai became a prominent activist for the right to education. Based in Birmingham, she founded the Malala Fund, a non-profit organisation,[10] and in 2013 co-authored I Am Malala, an international best seller.[11] In 2012, she was the recipient of Pakistan's first National Youth Peace Prize and the 2013 Sakharov Prize.[12] In 2014, she was the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Kailash Satyarthi of India. Aged 17 at the time, she was the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate.[13][14][15] In 2015, Yousafzai was a subject of the Oscar-shortlisted documentary He Named Me Malala. The 2013, 2014 and 2015 issues of Time magazine featured her as one of the most influential people globally. In 2017, she was awarded honorary Canadian citizenship and became the youngest person to address the House of Commons of Canada.[16] Yousafzai attended Edgbaston High School from 2013 to 2017,[17] and is currently studying for a bachelor's degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.[18]

Early life

Childhood

Yousafzai with her father Ziauddin in 2013

Yousafzai was born on 12 July 1997 in the Swat District of Pakistan's northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, into a lower-middle-class family.[19] She is the daughter of Ziauddin Yousafzai and Tor Pekai Yousafzai.[20] Her family is Sunni Muslim[3] of Pashtun ethnicity.[21] The family did not have enough money for a hospital birth and as a result, Yousafzai was born at home with the help of neighbours.[22] She was given her first name Malala (meaning "grief-stricken")[23] after Malalai of Maiwand, a famous Pashtun poet and warrior woman from southern Afghanistan.[24] Her last name, Yousafzai, is that of a large Pashtun tribal confederation that is predominant in Pakistan's Swat Valley, where she grew up. At her house in Mingora, she lived with her two younger brothers, Khushal and Atal, her parents, Ziauddin and Toor Pekai, and two pet chickens.[3]

Fluent in Pashto, Urdu and English, Yousafzai was educated mostly by her father, Ziauddin Yousafzai, who is a poet, school owner,[25] and an educational activist himself, running a chain of private schools known as the Khushal Public School.[26][27] In an interview, Yousafzai once stated that she aspired to become a doctor, though later her father encouraged her to become a politician instead.[3] Ziauddin referred to his daughter as something entirely special, allowing her to stay up at night and talk about politics after her two brothers had been sent to bed.[28]

Inspired by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Yousafzai started speaking about education rights as early as September 2008, when her father took her to Peshawar to speak at the local press club.[6] "How dare the Taliban take away my basic right to education?" Yousafzai asked her audience in a speech covered by newspapers and television channels throughout the region.[29] In 2009, Yousafzai began as a trainee and then a peer educator in the Institute for War and Peace Reporting's Open Minds Pakistan youth programme, which worked in schools in the region to help young people engage in constructive discussion on social issues through the tools of journalism, public debate and dialogue.[30]

As a BBC blogger

From left to right: Martin Luther King Jr, Nelson Mandela and Muhammad Ali Jinnah have influenced Yousafzai

In late 2008, Aamer Ahmed Khan of the BBC Urdu website and his colleagues came up with a novel way of covering the Taliban's growing influence in Swat. They decided to ask a schoolgirl to blog anonymously about her life there. Their correspondent in Peshawar, Abdul Hai Kakar, had been in touch with a local school teacher, Ziauddin Yousafzai, but could not find any students willing to do so, as it was considered too dangerous by their families. Finally, Yousafzai suggested his own daughter, 11-year-old Malala.[31] At the time, Taliban militants led by Maulana Fazlullah were taking over the Swat Valley, banning television, music, girls' education,[32] and women from going shopping.[33] Bodies of beheaded policemen were being displayed in town squares.[32] At first, a girl named Aisha from her father's school agreed to write a diary, but then the girl's parents stopped her from doing it because they feared Taliban reprisals. The only alternative was Yousafzai, four years younger than the original volunteer, and in seventh grade at the time.[34] Editors at the BBC unanimously agreed.[32]

I had a terrible dream yesterday with military helicopters and the Taliban. I have had such dreams since the launch of the military operation in Swat. My mother made me breakfast and I went off to school. I was afraid going to school because the Taliban had issued an edict banning all girls from attending schools. Only 11 out of 27 pupils attended the class because the number decreased because of the Taliban's edict. My three friends have shifted to Peshawar, Lahore and Rawalpindi with their families after this edict.

Malala Yousafzai, 3 January 2009 BBC blog entry[23]

"We had been covering the violence and politics in Swat in detail but we didn't know much about how ordinary people lived under the Taliban", said Mirza Waheed, the former editor of BBC Urdu. Because they were concerned about Yousafzai's safety, BBC editors insisted that she use a pseudonym.[32] Her blog was published under the byline "Gul Makai" ("cornflower" in Urdu),[35] a name taken from a character in a Pashtun folktale.[36][37]

On 3 January 2009, Yousafzai's first entry was posted to the BBC Urdu blog. She would hand-write notes and then pass them on to a reporter who would scan and e-mail them.[32] The blog records Yousafzai's thoughts during the First Battle of Swat, as military operations take place, fewer girls show up to school, and finally, her school shuts down.

In Mingora, the Taliban had set an edict that no girls could attend school after 15 January 2009. The group had already blown up more than a hundred girls' schools.[32] The night before the ban took effect was filled with the noise of artillery fire, waking Yousafzai several times. The following day, Yousafzai also read for the first time excerpts from her blog that had been published in a local newspaper.[23]

Banned from school

Following the edict, the Taliban destroyed several more local schools. On 24 January 2009, Yousafzai wrote: "Our annual exams are due after the vacations but this will only be possible if the Taliban allow girls to go to school. We were told to prepare certain chapters for the exam but I do not feel like studying."[38]

It seems that it is only when dozens of schools have been destroyed and hundreds others closed down that the army thinks about protecting them. Had they conducted their operations here properly, this situation would not have arisen.

Malala Yousafzai, 24 January 2009 BBC blog entry[38]

In February 2009, girls' schools were still closed. In solidarity, private schools for boys had decided not to open until 9 February, and notices appeared saying so.[38] On 7 February, Yousafzai and her brother returned to their hometown of Mingora, where the streets were deserted, and there was an "eerie silence". "We went to the supermarket to buy a gift for our mother but it was closed, whereas earlier it used to remain open till late. Many other shops were also closed", she wrote in her blog. Their home had been robbed and their television was stolen.[38]

After boys' schools reopened, the Taliban lifted restrictions on girls' primary education, where there was co-education. Girls-only schools were still closed. Yousafzai wrote that only 70 pupils attended, out of 700 pupils who were enrolled.[38]

On 15 February, gunshots could be heard in the streets of Mingora, but Yousafzai's father reassured her, saying: "Don't be scared – this is firing for peace." Her father had read in the newspaper that the government and the militants were going to sign a peace deal the next day. Later that night, when the Taliban announced the peace deal on their FM Radio studio, another round of stronger firing started outside.[38] Yousafzai spoke out against the Taliban on the national current affairs show Capital Talk on 18 February.[39] Three days later, local Taliban leader Maulana Fazlulla announced on his FM radio station that he was lifting the ban on women's education, and girls would be allowed to attend school until exams were held on 17 March, but they had to wear burqas.[38]

Girls' schools reopen

On 25 February, Yousafzai wrote on her blog that she and her classmates "played a lot in class and enjoyed ourselves like we used to before".[38] Attendance at Yousafzai's class was up to 19 of 27 pupils by 1 March, but the Taliban were still active in the area. Shelling continued, and relief goods meant for displaced people were looted.[38] Only two days later, Yousafzai wrote that there was a skirmish between the military and Taliban, and the sounds of mortar shells could be heard: "People are again scared that the peace may not last for long. Some people are saying that the peace agreement is not permanent, it is just a break in fighting."[38]

On 9 March, Yousafzai wrote about a science paper that she performed well on, and added that the Taliban were no longer searching vehicles as they once did. Her blog ended on 12 March 2009.[40]

As a displaced person

After the BBC diary ended, Yousafzai and her father were approached by New York Times reporter Adam B. Ellick about filming a documentary.[34] In May, the Pakistani Army moved into the region to regain control during the Second Battle of Swat. Mingora was evacuated and Yousafzai's family was displaced and separated. Her father went to Peshawar to protest and lobby for support, while she was sent into the countryside to live with relatives. "I'm really bored because I have no books to read," Yousafzai is filmed saying in the documentary.[3]

That month, after criticising militants at a press conference, Yousafzai's father received a death threat over the radio by a Taliban commander.[3] Yousafzai was deeply inspired in her activism by her father. That summer, for the first time, she committed to becoming a politician and not a doctor, as she had once aspired to be.[3]

I have a new dream ... I must be a politician to save this country. There are so many crises in our country. I want to remove these crises.

Malala Yousafzai, Class Dismissed (documentary)[3]

By early July, refugee camps were filled to capacity. The prime minister made a long-awaited announcement saying that it was safe to return to the Swat Valley. The Pakistani military had pushed the Taliban out of the cities and into the countryside. Yousafzai's family reunited, and on 24 July 2009 they headed home. They made one stop first – to meet with a group of other grassroots activists that had been invited to see United States President Barack Obama's special representative to Afghanistan and Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke. Yousafzai pleaded with Holbrooke to intervene in the situation, saying, "Respected ambassador, if you can help us in our education, so please help us." When her family finally did return home, they found it had not been damaged, and her school had sustained only light damage.[3]

Early activism

Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, one of Yousafzai's sources of inspiration

Following the documentary, Yousafzai was interviewed on the national Pashto-language station AVT Khyber, the Urdu-language Daily Aaj, and Canada's Toronto Star.[34] She made a second appearance on Capital Talk on 19 August 2009.[41] Her BBC blogging identity was being revealed in articles by December 2009.[42][43] She also began appearing on television to publicly advocate for female education.[33] From 2009 to 2010 she was the chair of the District Child Assembly of the Khpal Kor Foundation through 2009 and 2010.[44][45]

In 2011 Yousafzai trained with local girls' empowerment organisation, Aware Girls, run by Gulalai Ismail whose training includes advice on women's rights and empowerment to peacefully oppose radicalisation through education.[46]

In October 2011, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a South African activist, nominated Yousafzai for the International Children's Peace Prize of the Dutch international children's advocacy group KidsRights Foundation. She was the first Pakistani girl to be nominated for the award. The announcement said, "Malala dared to stand up for herself and other girls and used national and international media to let the world know girls should also have the right to go to school."[47] The award was won by Michaela Mycroft of South Africa.[48]

Her public profile rose even further when she was awarded Pakistan's first National Youth Peace Prize two months later in December.[32][47] On 19 December 2011, Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani awarded her the National Peace Award for Youth. At the proceedings in her honour, Yousafzai stated that she was not a member of any political party, but hoped to found a national party of her own to promote education.[49] The prime minister directed the authorities to set up an IT campus in the Swat Degree College for Women at Yousafzai's request, and a secondary school was renamed in her honour.[50] By 2012, Yousafzai was planning to organise the Malala Education Foundation, which would help poor girls go to school.[51]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Malala Yousafzai
العربية: ملالا يوسفزي
asturianu: Malala Yousafzai
azərbaycanca: Məlalə Yusəfzay
Bân-lâm-gú: Malala Yousafzai
башҡортса: Малала Юсуфзай
беларуская: Малала Юсуфзай
Bikol Central: Malala Yousafzai
български: Малала Юсафзаи
brezhoneg: Malala Yousafzai
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Malala Yousafzai
Esperanto: Malala Yousafzai
Fiji Hindi: Malala Yousafzai
français: Malala Yousafzai
Արեւմտահայերէն: Մալալա Եուսուֆզայ
Bahasa Indonesia: Malala Yousafzai
interlingua: Malala Yousafzai
íslenska: Malala Yousafzai
Kiswahili: Malala Yousafzai
Lëtzebuergesch: Malala Yousafzai
македонски: Малала Јусафзаи
მარგალური: მალალა იუსაფზაი
مازِرونی: ملاله یوسف‌زی
Bahasa Melayu: Malala Yousafzai
Minangkabau: Malala Yousafzai
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မာလာလာ
Nederlands: Malala Yousafzai
norsk nynorsk: Malala Yousafzai
Plattdüütsch: Malala Yousafzai
português: Malala Yousafzai
संस्कृतम्: मलाला युसुफजई
sicilianu: Malala Yousafzai
Simple English: Malala Yousafzai
slovenščina: Malala Jusafzaj
српски / srpski: Малала Јусуфзаи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Malala Yousafzai
татарча/tatarça: Мәләлә Юсәфзәи
Türkçe: Malala Yusufzay
українська: Малала Юсафзай
Tiếng Việt: Malala Yousafzai
粵語: 馬拉拉