Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad portrait 2013 2.jpg
6th President of Iran
In office
3 August 2005 – 3 August 2013
Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei
First Vice PresidentParviz Davoodi
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei
Mohammad Reza Rahimi
Preceded byMohammad Khatami
Succeeded byHassan Rouhani
Minister of Petroleum
In office
16 May 2011 – 2 June 2011
Preceded byMasoud Mir-Kazemi
Succeeded byMohammad Aliabadi (Acting)
Minister of Intelligence
In office
26 July 2009 – 5 August 2009
Preceded byGholam-Hossein Eje'i
Succeeded byHeydar Moslehi
Mayor of Tehran
In office
3 May 2003 – 28 June 2005
Preceded byMohammad-Hossein Moghimi (Acting)
Succeeded byAli Saeedlou (Acting)
Governor of Ardabil Province
In office
28 November 1993 – 29 October 1997
PresidentAkbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Preceded byProvince created
Succeeded bySeyyed Hamid Tahayi
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
30 August 2012 – 3 August 2013
Preceded byMohamed Morsi
Succeeded byHassan Rouhani
Personal details
Mahmoud Sabbaghian[3]

(1956-10-28) 28 October 1956 (age 62)
Aradan, Semnan, Iran
Political party
Spouse(s)Azam Farahi (1980–present)
ResidenceSquare 72, Narmak, Tehran, Iran[4]
Alma materIran University of Science and Technology
OccupationUniversity professor
ProfessionTraffic engineer
SignaturePersonal Twitter
Military service
AllegianceIran Iran
Branch/serviceRevolutionary Guards
Years of service1986–1988[5][6]
UnitHamzeh Headquarters[5]
CommandsCombat engineering Unit, 6th Special Division[6]
Battles/warsIran–Iraq War

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Persian: محمود احمدی‌نژاد‎, translit. Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād [mæhmuːd(-e) æhmædiːneʒɒːd] (About this soundlisten),[b][8][9] born Mahmoud Sabbaghian[3] (Persian: صباغیان‎, translit. Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956)[10][11] is an Iranian politician and statesman who served as the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013. He was also the main political leader of the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, a coalition of conservative political groups in the country.

An engineer and teacher from a poor background,[12] ideologically shaped by thinkers such as Navvab Safavi, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad and Ahmad Fardid,[13] Ahmadinejad joined the Office for Strengthening Unity[14] after the Iranian Revolution. Appointed a provincial governor, he was removed after the election of President Mohammad Khatami and returned to teaching.[15] Tehran's council elected him mayor in 2003.[16] He took a religious hard line, reversing reforms of previous moderate mayors.[17] His 2005 presidential campaign, supported by the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, garnered 62% of the runoff election votes, and he became President on 3 August 2005.[18][19]

During his presidency, Ahmadinejad was a controversial figure within Iran, as well as internationally. He has been criticized domestically for his economic policies[20] and disregard for human rights.[21] Internationally, he is criticized for his hostility towards countries including Israel, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and the United States and other Western and Arab states. In 2007, Ahmadinejad introduced a gas rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption, and cut the interest rates that private and public banking facilities could charge.[22][23][24] He supports Iran's nuclear program. His election to a second term in 2009 was widely disputed[25][26] and caused widespread protests domestically and drew significant international criticism.[27]

During his second term, Ahmadinejad came under fire not only from reformers but also traditionalists[28] in parliament and the Revolutionary Guard, and even from Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei,[29] over accusations of corruption, Ahmadinejad's dismissal of Intelligence minister Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, and his support for his controversial close adviser Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei.[30] On 14 March 2012, Ahmadinejad became the first president of the Islamic Republic of Iran to be summoned by the Islamic Consultative Assembly (parliament) to answer questions regarding his presidency.[31][32] Limited to two terms under the current Iranian constitution, Ahmadinejad supported Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei's campaign for president.[28] On 15 June 2013, Hassan Rouhani was elected as Ahmadinejad's successor and assumed office on 3 August 2013.

On 12 April 2017, Ahmadinejad announced that he intended to run for a third term in the 2017 Iranian presidential election, against the objections of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei.[33] His nomination was rejected by the Guardian Council.[34][35] During the 2017–18 Iranian protests Ahmedinejad criticized the current government of Iran.

Early life

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was born on 28 October 1956 near Garmsar, in the village of Aradan, in Semnan province. His mother, Khanom, was a Sayyida, an honorific title given to those believed to be direct bloodline descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[36] His father, Ahmad, was a grocer and barber, and was a religious Shia who taught the Quran.[36]

When Mahmoud was one year old, his family moved to Tehran. Mahmoud's father changed their family name from "Saborjhian"[37] or "Sabaghian"[c] to Ahmadinejad in 1960 to avoid discrimination when the family moved to the city. Sabor is Persian for thread painter,[d] a once common occupation within the Semnan carpet industry. Ahmadinejad's uncle and his brother Davoud Ahmadinejad have confirmed that the previous surname was "Sabbaghian" (Persian: صباغیان‎).[3] Ahmadinejad is a composite name: Ahmadi Nejad. Ahmad was his father's name. The suffix Nejad in Persian means race, therefore the term Ahmadi Nejad means "the lineage of Ahmad". According to the interviews with the relatives of Ahmadi Nejad, his father who works in a small shop, sold his house in Tehran and bought a smaller one, giving the leftover to charity and poor people.[41]

In 1976, Ahmadinejad took Iran's national university entrance examination. According to his autobiography, he was ranked 132nd out of 400,000 participants that year,[42] and soon enrolled in the Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), located at Tehran, as an undergraduate student of civil engineering. He would later earn his doctorate in 1997 in transportation engineering and planning from Iran University of Science and Technology as well, when he was the mayor of Ardabil Province, located at the north-west of the country.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Mahmud Əhmədinejad
Bân-lâm-gú: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Махмуд Ахмадзінэжад
Bikol Central: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Bahasa Indonesia: Mahmud Ahmadinejad
Lëtzebuergesch: Mahmud Ahmadinedschad
Bahasa Melayu: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Baso Minangkabau: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Napulitano: Mahmud Ahmadinejad
norsk nynorsk: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mahmud Ahmadinajod
Simple English: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mahmud Ahmadinežad
Basa Sunda: Mahmud Ahmadinejad
татарча/tatarça: Мәхмүт Әхмәдиниҗат
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئەھمىدى نىجات
Tiếng Việt: Mahmud Ahmadinezhad