Madrid

Madrid
Calle de Alcalá
Plaza Mayor
AZCA & CBTA
Madrid May 2014-45a.jpg
Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral
From upper left: Calle de Alcalá, Plaza Mayor, business districts of AZCA and CTBA, Puerta de Alcalá; and the Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral
Flag of Madrid
Flag
Coat of arms of Madrid
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
"Fui sobre agua edificada,
mis muros de fuego son.
Esta es mi insignia y blasón"

("On water I was built, my walls are made of fire.
This is my ensign and escutcheon")
Madrid is located in Spain
Madrid
Madrid
Location within Spain
Madrid is located in Europe
Madrid
Madrid
Location within Europe
Madrid is located in Earth
Madrid
Madrid
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 40°23′N 3°43′W / 40°23′N 3°43′W / www.madrid.es

Madrid (d/, Spanish: [maˈðɾið]) is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.2 million[5] inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), smaller than only London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris.[6][7][8][9] The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).[10]

Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country.[11] The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid.

The Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP[12] in the European Union and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.[13][14] Madrid is home to two world-famous football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe[15][16] and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index.[17]

Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), belonging to the United Nations Organization (UN), the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), and the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). It also hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu BBVA). Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR,[18] ARCO,[19] SIMO TCI[20] and the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week.[21]

While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid; the Royal Theatre with its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro Park, founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; a large number of national museums,[22] and the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which completes the shortcomings of the other two museums.[23] Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.[24][25] Madrid is the most visited city of Spain.[26]

Etymology

مجريط Majrīṭ (AFI [madʒriːtˁ]) is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period. The name Magerit ([madʒeˈɾit]) was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" (for *Materit or *Mageterit?) comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, and means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic.[27] A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins.

According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor (son of King Tyrrhenius of Tuscany and Mantua) and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria" ("land of bears" in Latin), because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, which, together with the strawberry tree (Spanish madroño), have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages.[28]

Nevertheless, it is also speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river. The name of this first village was "Matrice" (a reference to the river that crossed the settlement). Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, and as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who then ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor, also taking control of "Matrice". In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra[citation needed] (referencing water as a 'tree' or 'giver of life') and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means 'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic.[29]

Other Languages
Acèh: Madrid
Адыгэбзэ: Мадрид
адыгабзэ: Мадрид
Afrikaans: Madrid
Alemannisch: Madrid
አማርኛ: ማድሪድ
Ænglisc: Madrid
Аҧсшәа: Мaдрид
العربية: مدريد
aragonés: Madrit
armãneashti: Madrid
arpetan: Madrid
asturianu: Madrid
Avañe'ẽ: Madrid
авар: Мадрид
Aymar aru: Madrid
azərbaycanca: Madrid
تۆرکجه: مادرید
bamanankan: Madrid
বাংলা: মাদ্রিদ
Bân-lâm-gú: Madrid
башҡортса: Мадрид
беларуская: Мадрыд
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мадрыд
Bikol Central: Madrid
Bislama: Madrid
български: Мадрид
Boarisch: Madrid
བོད་ཡིག: མ་ད་རིད།
bosanski: Madrid
brezhoneg: Madrid
буряад: Мадрид
català: Madrid
Чӑвашла: Мадрид
Cebuano: Madrid
čeština: Madrid
Chamoru: Madrid
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Madrid
Chi-Chewa: Madrid
chiShona: Madrid
corsu: Madridi
Cymraeg: Madrid
dansk: Madrid
davvisámegiella: Madrid
Deitsch: Madrid
Deutsch: Madrid
dolnoserbski: Madrid
eesti: Madrid
Ελληνικά: Μαδρίτη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Madrìd
эрзянь: Мадрид ош
español: Madrid
Esperanto: Madrido
estremeñu: Mairil
euskara: Madril
eʋegbe: Madrid
فارسی: مادرید
Fiji Hindi: Madrid
føroyskt: Madrid
français: Madrid
furlan: Madrid
Gaeilge: Maidrid
Gaelg: Madrid
Gagauz: Madrid
Gàidhlig: Madrid
galego: Madrid
ГӀалгӀай: Мадрид
گیلکی: مادريد
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: माद्रिद
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Madrid
한국어: 마드리드
Hausa: Madrid
Hawaiʻi: Makelika
հայերեն: Մադրիդ
हिन्दी: मद्रिद
hornjoserbsce: Madrid
hrvatski: Madrid
Ido: Madrid
Ilokano: Madrid
Bahasa Indonesia: Madrid
interlingua: Madrid
Interlingue: Madrid
Ирон: Мадрид
isiXhosa: Madrid
íslenska: Madríd
italiano: Madrid
עברית: מדריד
Basa Jawa: Madrid
Kabɩyɛ: Maadiriidi
kalaallisut: Madrid
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮಡ್ರಿಡ್
Kapampangan: Madrid
ქართული: მადრიდი
kaszëbsczi: Madrit
қазақша: Мадрид
kernowek: Madrid
Kinyarwanda: Madrid
Kirundi: Madrid
Kiswahili: Madrid
коми: Мадрид
Kreyòl ayisyen: Madrid
kurdî: Madrîd
Кыргызча: Мадрид
кырык мары: Мадрид
Ladino: Madrid
لۊری شومالی: مادرید
Latina: Matritum
latviešu: Madride
Lëtzebuergesch: Madrid
лезги: Мадрид
lietuvių: Madridas
Ligure: Madrid
Limburgs: Madrid (stad)
lingála: Madrid
Lingua Franca Nova: Madrid
Livvinkarjala: Madridu
lumbaart: Madrid
magyar: Madrid
македонски: Мадрид
Malagasy: Madrid
മലയാളം: മാഡ്രിഡ്
Malti: Madrid
Māori: Madrid
मराठी: माद्रिद
მარგალური: მადრიდი
مصرى: مدريد
مازِرونی: مادرید
Bahasa Melayu: Madrid
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Madrid
Mirandés: Madrid
монгол: Мадрид
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မဒရစ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Madrid
Nederlands: Madrid (stad)
Nedersaksies: Medrid
नेपाली: म्याड्रिड
नेपाल भाषा: माद्री
日本語: マドリード
нохчийн: Мадрид
Nordfriisk: Madrid
Norfuk / Pitkern: Madrid
norsk: Madrid
norsk nynorsk: Madrid
Nouormand: Madri
Novial: Madrid
occitan: Madrid
олык марий: Мадрид
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମାଡ୍ରିଦ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Madrid
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਾਦਰੀਦ
پنجابی: مادرید
Papiamentu: Madrid
Перем Коми: Мадрид
Picard: Madrid
Piemontèis: Madrid
Tok Pisin: Madrid
Plattdüütsch: Madrid
polski: Madryt
português: Madrid
Qaraqalpaqsha: Madrid
qırımtatarca: Madrid
reo tahiti: Madrid
română: Madrid
Romani: Madrid
rumantsch: Madrid
Runa Simi: Madrid
русиньскый: Мадрід
русский: Мадрид
саха тыла: Мадрид
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱟᱰᱨᱤᱰ
Gagana Samoa: Madrid
संस्कृतम्: मद्रिद्
sardu: Madrid
Scots: Madrid
Seeltersk: Madrid
Sesotho: Madrid
Setswana: Madrid
shqip: Madridi
sicilianu: Madrid
සිංහල: මැඩ්රිඩ්
Simple English: Madrid
slovenčina: Madrid
slovenščina: Madrid
ślůnski: Madryt
Soomaaliga: Madrid
کوردی: مەدرید
Sranantongo: Madrid
српски / srpski: Мадрид
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Madrid
Basa Sunda: Madrid
suomi: Madrid
svenska: Madrid
Tagalog: Madrid
தமிழ்: மத்ரித்
Taqbaylit: Madrid
tarandíne: Madrid
татарча/tatarça: Madrid
tetun: Madríd
тоҷикӣ: Мадрид
lea faka-Tonga: Madrid
Tsetsêhestâhese: Madrid
Tshivenda: Madrid
Türkçe: Madrid
Türkmençe: Madrid
Twi: Madrid
удмурт: Мадрид
українська: Мадрид
اردو: میدرد
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Madrid
Vahcuengh: Madrid
vèneto: Madrid
vepsän kel’: Madrid
Tiếng Việt: Madrid
Volapük: Madrid
Võro: Madrid
文言: 馬德里
Winaray: Madrid
Wolof: Madrid
吴语: 马德里市
ייִדיש: מאדריד
Yorùbá: Madrid
粵語: 馬德里
Zazaki: Madrid
žemaitėška: Madrids
中文: 马德里