Madison Square Garden

Madison Square Garden
"MSG", "The Garden"
Madison Square Garden logo.png
Madison Square Garden (MSG) - Full (48124330357).jpg
Madison Square Garden is located in Manhattan
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
Location within Manhattan
Madison Square Garden is located in New York City
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden (New York City)
Madison Square Garden is located in New York
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden (New York)
Madison Square Garden is located in the United States
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden (the United States)
Address4 Pennsylvania Plaza
LocationNew York City, New York
Coordinates40°45′2″N 73°59′37″W / 40°45′2″N 73°59′37″W / 40.75056; -73.99361
Public transit

MTA NYC logo.svg New York City Subway:

Port Authority Trans-Hudson PATH: 33rd Street

MTA NYC logo.svg New York City Bus: M4, M7, M20, M34 SBS, M34A SBS, Q32 buses
OwnerThe Madison Square Garden Company
OperatorMSG Entertainment
CapacityBasketball: 19,812[1]
Ice hockey: 18,006[1]
Pro wrestling: 18,500
Concerts: 20,000
Boxing: 20,789
Hulu Theater: 5,600
Field size820,000 square feet (76,000 m2)
Construction
Broke groundOctober 29, 1964[2]
OpenedFormer locations: 1879, 1890, 1925
Current location: February 11, 1968
Renovated1989–1991, 2011–2013
Construction cost$123 million
($873 million in 2019[3])

Renovation:
1991: $200 million
($322 million in 2019[3])

Total cost:
$1.07 billion in 2013
ArchitectCharles Luckman Associates
Brisbin Brook Beynon Architects
Structural engineerSeverud Associates[4]
Services engineerSyska & Hennessy, Inc.[5]
General contractorTurner/Del E. Webb[5]
Tenants
New York Rangers (NHL) (1968–present)
New York Knicks (NBA) (1968–present)
St. John's Red Storm (NCAA) (1969–present)
New York Raiders/Golden Blades (WHA) (1972–1973)
New York Apples (WTT) (1977–1978)
New York Stars (WBL) (1979–1980)
New York Cosmos (NASL) (1983–1984)
New York Knights (AFL) (1988)
New York CityHawks (AFL) (1997–1998)
New York Liberty (WNBA) (1997–2010, 2014–2017)
New York Titans (www.thegarden.com

Madison Square Garden, colloquially known as The Garden or in initials as MSG, is a multi-purpose indoor arena in New York City. Located in Midtown Manhattan between 7th and 8th Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets, it is situated atop Pennsylvania Station. It is the fourth venue to bear the name "Madison Square Garden"; the first two (1879 and 1890) were located on Madison Square, on East 26th Street and Madison Avenue, with the third Madison Square Garden (1925) further uptown at Eighth Avenue and 50th Street.

The Garden is used for professional ice hockey and basketball, as well as boxing, concerts, ice shows, circuses, professional wrestling and other forms of sports and entertainment. It is close to other midtown Manhattan landmarks, including the Empire State Building, Koreatown, and Macy's at Herald Square. It is home to the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League (NHL), the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA), and was home to the New York Liberty (WNBA) from 1997 to 2017.

Originally called Madison Square Garden Center, the Garden opened on February 11, 1968, and is the oldest major sporting facility in the New York metropolitan area. It is the oldest arena in the National Hockey League and the National Basketball Association. In 2016, MSG was the second-busiest music arena in the world in terms of ticket sales, behind The O2 Arena in London.[6] Including two major renovations, its total construction cost is approximately $1.1 billion, and it has been ranked as one of the 10 most expensive stadium venues ever built.[7] It is part of the Pennsylvania Plaza office and retail complex, named for the railway station. Several other operating entities related to the Garden share its name.

History

Previous Gardens

Madison Square is formed by the intersection of 5th Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in Manhattan. It was named after James Madison, fourth President of the United States.[8]

Two venues called Madison Square Garden were located just northeast of the square, the first from 1879 to 1890, and the second from 1890 to 1925. The first Garden, leased to P. T. Barnum,[9] had no roof and was inconvenient to use during inclement weather, so it was demolished after 11 years. Madison Square Garden II was designed by noted architect Stanford White. The new building was built by a syndicate which included J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, P. T. Barnum,[10] Darius Mills, James Stillman and W. W. Astor. White gave them a Beaux-Arts structure with a Moorish feel, including a minaret-like tower modeled after Giralda, the bell tower of the Cathedral of Seville[10] – soaring 32 stories – the city's second tallest building at the time – dominating Madison Square Park. It was 200 feet (61 m) by 485 feet (148 m), and the main hall, which was the largest in the world, measured 200 feet (61 m) by 350 feet (110 m), with permanent seating for 8,000 people and floor space for thousands more. It had a 1,200-seat theatre, a concert hall with a capacity of 1,500, the largest restaurant in the city and a roof garden cabaret.[9] The building cost $3 million.[9] Madison Square Garden II was unsuccessful like the first Garden,[11] and the New York Life Insurance Company, which held the mortgage on it, decided to tear it down in 1925 to make way for a new headquarters building, which would become the landmark Cass Gilbert-designed New York Life Building.

A third Madison Square Garden opened in a new location, on 8th Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets, from 1925 to 1968. Groundbreaking on the third Madison Square Garden took place on January 9, 1925.[12] Designed by the noted theater architect Thomas W. Lamb, it was built at the cost of $4.75 million in 249 days by boxing promoter Tex Rickard;[9] the arena was dubbed "The House That Tex Built."[13] The arena was 200 feet (61 m) by 375 feet (114 m), with seating on three levels, and a maximum capacity of 18,496 spectators for boxing.[9]

Demolition commenced in 1968 after the opening of the current Garden,[14] and was completed in early 1969. The site is now the location of One Worldwide Plaza.

Current Garden

A basketball game at Madison Square Garden circa 1968

In February 1959, Graham-Paige purchased a 40% interest in the Madison Square Garden for $4 million[15] and later gained control.[16] In November 1960, Graham-Paige president Irving Mitchell Felt purchased from the Pennsylvania Railroad the rights to build at Penn Station.[17] To build the new facility, the above-ground portions of the original Pennsylvania Station were torn down.

The new structure was one of the first of its kind to be built above the platforms of an active railroad station. It was an engineering feat constructed by Robert E. McKee of El Paso, Texas. Public outcry over the demolition of the Pennsylvania Station structure—an outstanding example of Beaux-Arts architecture—led to the creation of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. The venue opened on February 11, 1968. Still there was criticism: Yale University art historian Vincent Scully wrote about the old Penn Station compared to the commuter underground of MSG "One entered the city like a god; now one scuttles like a rat."[18]

In 1972, Felt proposed moving the Knicks and Rangers to a then incomplete venue in the New Jersey Meadowlands, the Meadowlands Sports Complex. The Garden was also the home arena for the NY Raiders/NY Golden Blades of the World Hockey Association. The Meadowlands would eventually host its own NBA and NHL teams, the New Jersey Nets and the New Jersey Devils, respectively. The New York Giants and Jets of the National Football League (NFL) also relocated there. In 1977, the arena was sold to Gulf and Western Industries. Felt's efforts fueled controversy between the Garden and New York City over real estate taxes. The disagreement again flared in 1980 when the Garden again challenged its tax bill. The arena, since the 1980s, has since enjoyed tax-free status, under the condition that all Knicks and Rangers home games must be hosted at MSG, lest it lose this exemption. As such, when the Rangers have played neutral-site games—even those in New York City, such as the 2018 NHL Winter Classic, they have always been designated as the visiting team.[19]

Garden owners spent $200 million in 1991 to renovate facilities and add 89 suites in place of hundreds of upper-tier seats. The project was designed by Ellerbe Becket. In 2004–2005, Cablevision battled with the City of New York over the proposed West Side Stadium, which was cancelled. Cablevision then announced plans to raze the Garden, replace it with high-rise commercial buildings, and build a new Garden one block away at the site of the James Farley Post Office. Meanwhile, a new project to renovate and modernize the Garden completed phase one in time for the Rangers and Knicks' 2011–12 seasons,[20] though the vice president of the Garden says he remains committed to the installation of an extension of Penn Station at the Farley Post Office site. While the Knicks and Rangers were not displaced, the New York Liberty played at the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey during the renovation.

Madison Square Garden is the last of the NBA and NHL arenas to not be named after a corporate sponsor.[21]

Joe Louis Plaza

In 1984, the four streets immediately surrounding the Garden were designated as Joe Louis Plaza, in honor of boxer Joe Louis, who made eight successful title defenses in the previous Madison Square Garden.[22][23]

2011–2013 renovation

Madison Square Garden's upper bowl concourse, seen in January 2014 during a Rangers game
The completely transformed Madison Square Garden in January 2014 (with a new HD scoreboard), as the New York Rangers play against the St. Louis Blues.

Madison Square Garden's $1 billion second renovation took place mainly over three offseasons. It was set to begin after the 2009–10 hockey/basketball seasons, but was delayed until after the 2010–11 seasons. Renovation was done in phases with the majority of the work done in the summer months to minimize disruptions to the NHL and NBA seasons. While the Rangers and Knicks were not displaced,[24][25] the Liberty played their home games through the 2013 season at Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey, during the renovation.[26][27]

New features include a larger entrance with interactive kiosks, retail, climate-controlled space, and broadcast studio; larger concourses; new lighting and LED video systems with HDTV; new seating; two new pedestrian walkways suspended from the ceiling to allow fans to look directly down onto the games being played below; more dining options; and improved dressing rooms, locker rooms, green rooms, upgraded roof, and production offices. The lower bowl concourse, called the Madison Concourse, remains on the 6th floor. The upper bowl concourse was relocated to the 8th floor and it is known as the Garden Concourse. The 7th floor houses the new Madison Suites and the Madison Club. The upper bowl was built on top of these suites. The rebuilt concourses are wider than their predecessors, and include large windows that offer views of the city streets around the Garden.[28]

Construction of the lower bowl (Phase 1) was completed for the 2011–2012 NHL season and the 2011–12 NBA lockout shortened season. An extended off-season for the Garden permitted some advanced work to begin on the new upper bowl, which was completed in time for the 2012–2013 NBA season and the 2012–13 NHL lockout-shortened NHL season. This advance work included the West Balcony on the 10th floor, taking the place of sky-boxes, and new end-ice 300 level seating. The construction of the upper bowl along with the Madison Suites and the Madison Club (Phase 2) were completed for the 2012–2013 NHL and NBA seasons. The construction of the new lobby known as Chase Square, along with the Chase Bridges and the new scoreboard (Phase 3) were completed for the 2013–2014 NHL and NBA seasons.

Penn Station renovation controversy

Madison Square Garden is seen as an obstacle in the renovation and future expansion of Penn Station, which is already expanding through the James Farley Post Office, and some have proposed moving MSG to other sites in western Manhattan. On February 15, 2013, Manhattan Community Board 5 voted 36–0 against granting a renewal to MSG's operating permit in perpetuity and proposed a 10-year limit instead in order to build a new Penn Station where the arena is currently standing. Manhattan borough president Scott Stringer said, "Moving the arena is an important first step to improving Penn Station." The Madison Square Garden Company responded by saying that "[i]t is incongruous to think that M.S.G. would be considering moving."[29]

In May 2013, four architecture firms – SHoP Architects, SOM, H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture, and Diller Scofidio + Renfro – submitted proposals for a new Penn Station. SHoP Architects recommended moving Madison Square Garden to the Morgan Postal Facility a few blocks southwest, as well as removing 2 Penn Plaza and redeveloping other towers, and an extension of the High Line to Penn Station.[30] Meanwhile, SOM proposed moving Madison Square Garden to the area just south of the James Farley Post Office, and redeveloping the area above Penn Station as a mixed-use development with commercial, residential, and recreational space.[30] H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture wanted to move the arena to a new pier west of Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, four blocks west of the current station and arena. Then, according to H3's plan, four skyscrapers would be built, one at each of the four corners of the new Penn Station superblock, with a roof garden on top of the station; the Farley Post Office would become an education center.[30] Finally, Diller Scofidio + Renfro proposed a mixed-use development on the site, with spas, theaters, a cascading park, a pool, and restaurants; Madison Square Garden would be moved two blocks west, next to the post office. DS+F also proposed high-tech features in the station, such as train arrival and departure boards on the floor, and apps that would inform waiting passengers of ways to occupy their time until they board their trains.[30] Madison Square Garden rejected the notion that it would be relocated, and called the plans "pie-in-the-sky".[30]

In June 2013, the New York City Council Committee on Land Use voted unanimously to give the Garden a ten-year permit, at the end of which period the owners will either have to relocate, or go back through the permission process.[31] On July 24, the City Council voted to give the Garden a 10-year operating permit by a vote of 47 to 1. "This is the first step in finding a new home for Madison Square Garden and building a new Penn Station that is as great as New York and suitable for the 21st century", said City Council speaker Christine Quinn. "This is an opportunity to reimagine and redevelop Penn Station as a world-class transportation destination."[32]

In October 2014, the Morgan facility was selected as the ideal area for Madison Square Garden to be moved, following the 2014 MAS Summit in New York City. More plans for the station were discussed.[33][34] Then, in January 2016, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced a redevelopment plan for Penn Station that would involve the removal of The Theater at Madison Square Garden, but would otherwise leave the arena intact.[35][36]

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