MacOS

macOS
MacOS wordmark (2017).svg
MacOS Mojave Desktop.jpg
Screenshot of the macOS Mojave desktop in dark mode
DeveloperApple Inc.
Written in
OS familyMacintosh, Unix
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source (with open source components)
Initial releaseMarch 24, 2001; 17 years ago (2001-03-24)
Latest release10.14.2[3] (18C54)[4] (December 5, 2018; 9 days ago (2018-12-05))
Latest preview10.14.3 beta 1[5] (18D21c)[6] (December 10, 2018; 4 days ago (2018-12-10))
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in38 languages[7]
List of languages
[as of macOS Mojave]: Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (United Kingdom), English (United States), Finnish, French (Canada), French (Europe), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese
Update method
Platforms
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
Default user interfaceAqua (Graphical)
LicenseCommercial software, proprietary software
Preceded bywww.apple.com/macos
Support status
Supported

macOS (s/;[8] previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.[9][10]

macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.[11] Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Mojave, which was publicly released in September 2018.

Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.[12]

macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such. The X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard[13] and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS,[23] tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.[24]

Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from that time period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, a separate version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was made and distributed exclusively with early Intel-based Macs; it included an emulator known as Rosetta, which allowed users to run most PowerPC applications on Intel-based Macs. Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release to be built as a universal binary, meaning that the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first release to be available exclusively for Intel-based Macs. In 2011, Apple released Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and also did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since then run exclusively on macOSMacOS wordmark (2017).svg

History

Development

Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems

The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language.

Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.[25] This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system.[26] This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.[27][28]

Mac OS X

Launch of Mac OS X

Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number "10". Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral. It is therefore correctly pronounced "ten" in this context.[29][30] However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter "X".[31]

The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.

The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance.[32] With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X.[33] Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'.[32][34][35]

Following releases

Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X.[36] Siracusa's review of version 10.3, Panther, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases."[37] Version 10.4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.[38]

As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS, with applications being added and removed.[39] Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.[40] Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the .Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It later began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store.

Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10.4.[41] In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.[42][43]

In 2006, the first Intel Macs released used a specialized version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.[44]

A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players used a minimal operating system, the iPhone used an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard.[45] However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone software developers showing interest in Mac development.[46]

In 2007, Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release with universal binary components, allowing installation on both Intel Macs and select PowerPC Macs.[47] It is also the final release with PowerPC Mac support. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first version of OS X to be built exclusively for Intel Macs, and the final release with 32-bit Intel Mac support.[48] The name was intended to signal its status as an iteration of Leopard, focusing on technical and performance improvements rather than user-facing features; indeed it was explicitly branded to developers as being a 'no new features' release.[49] Since its release, several OS X or macOS releases (namely OS X Mountain Lion, OS X El Capitan and macOS High Sierra) follow this pattern, with a name derived from its predecessor, similar to the 'tick-tock model' used by Intel.

In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion, Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS, at the same time simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use.[34] This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machine backup utility, which presented past file versions against a swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard.[50] In addition, with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable application through the Mac App Store. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler... shifting its focus from large businesses to small ones."[51]

OS X

OS X logo from 2012–2013

In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall, and design was changed towards a more minimal direction.[52] Apple's new user interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, 'flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged.[53] The next version, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.[54]

From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from 2013 onwards.[55] Some journalists and third-party software developers have suggested that this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above new features.[56] Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10.11 El Capitan, was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.[57]

macOS

In 2016, with the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra, the name was changed from OS X to macOS to streamline it with the branding of Apple's other primary operating systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.[58] macOS 10.12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of Siri to macOS, Optimized Storage, improvements to included applications, and greater integration with Apple's iPhone and Apple Watch. The Apple File System (APFS) was announced at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in 2016 as a replacement for HFS+, a highly criticized file system.[59]

Apple previewed macOS 10.13 High Sierra at the 2017 Worldwide Developers Conference, before releasing it later that year.[60] When running on solid state drives, it uses APFS, rather than HFS+.[citation needed] Its successor, macOS 10.14 Mojave, was released in 2018, adding a dark user interface option and a dynamic wallpaper setting.[61]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: OS X
العربية: ماك أو إس
asturianu: MacOS
azərbaycanca: MacOS
বাংলা: ম্যাক ওএস
Bân-lâm-gú: MacOS
беларуская: Mac OS X
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: MacOS
български: MacOS
bosanski: MacOS
català: MacOS
Чӑвашла: OS X
čeština: MacOS
Cymraeg: OS X
dansk: OS X
Deutsch: MacOS
eesti: MacOS
Ελληνικά: MacOS
español: MacOS
Esperanto: MacOS
euskara: OS X
فارسی: مک‌اواس
français: MacOS
galego: OS X
한국어: MacOS
հայերեն: Մաք ՕԷս Տաս
hrvatski: MacOS
Bahasa Indonesia: MacOS
interlingua: Mac OS X
íslenska: OS X
italiano: MacOS
עברית: MacOS
ქართული: MacOS
қазақша: MacOS
Kiswahili: Mac OS
kurdî: Mac OS X
Кыргызча: MacOS
Latina: Mac OS X
latviešu: MacOS
Lëtzebuergesch: Mac OS X
lietuvių: MacOS
Ligure: MacOS
lingála: Mac OS
lumbaart: MacOS
magyar: MacOS
македонски: MacOS
മലയാളം: മാക് ഒഎസ്
मराठी: ओएस एक्स
Bahasa Melayu: OS X
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: OS X
Nederlands: MacOS
日本語: MacOS
norsk: MacOS
norsk nynorsk: MacOS
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mac OS X
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੈਕਓਐਸ
polski: MacOS
português: MacOS
română: Mac OS X
русский: MacOS
sardu: Mac OS X
Scots: MacOS
shqip: Mac OS X
Simple English: MacOS
slovenčina: MacOS
slovenščina: MacOS
ślůnski: OS X
کوردی: مەک ئۆئێس
српски / srpski: MacOS
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: MacOS
suomi: MacOS
svenska: Mac OS X
татарча/tatarça: Mac OS X
тоҷикӣ: OS X
Türkçe: MacOS
українська: MacOS
Tiếng Việt: MacOS
吴语: MacOS
粵語: MacOS
žemaitėška: Mac OS X
中文: MacOS