M4 motorway

M4 shield

M4
Route information
Part of
Maintained by
Highways England
South Wales Trunk Road Agent
Length189 mi[1] (304 km)
Existed1963 – present
HistoryOpened: 1959 (Chiswick Flyover), 1961 (as A4(M)), 1963, 1966 (as A48(M))
Completed: 1996
Major junctions
East endChiswick
51°29′23″N 0°16′41″W / 51°29′23″N 0°16′41″W / M4 motorway (eastern end))
 Junction 4b.svg UK-Motorway-M25.svg
J4b → M25 motorway
Junction 8-9.svg UK-Motorway-A308 (M).svg/UK-Motorway-A404 (M).svg
J8/9 → A308(M) motorway/A404(M) motorway
Junction 10.svg UK-Motorway-A329 (M).svg
J10 → A329(M) motorway
Junction 19.svg UK-Motorway-M32.svg
J19 → M32 motorway
Junction 20.svg UK-Motorway-M5.svg
J20 → M5 motorway
Junction 21.svg UK-Motorway-M48.svg
J21 → M48 motorway
Junction 22.svg UK-Motorway-M49.svg
J22 → M49 motorway
Junction 23.svg UK-Motorway-M48.svg
J23 → M48 motorway
Junction 29.svg UK-Motorway-A48 (M).svg
J29 → A48(M) motorway
West endPont Abraham
51°44′42″N 4°03′54″W / 51°44′42″N 4°03′54″W / M4 motorway (western end))
Location
CountiesGreater London, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Monmouthshire, Newport, Cardiff, Vale of Glamorgan, Rhondda Cynon Taf, Bridgend, Neath Port Talbot, Swansea, Carmarthenshire
Primary
destinations
London
Heathrow Airport
Slough
Maidenhead
Reading
Newbury
Swindon
Bristol
Newport
Cardiff
Bridgend
Port Talbot
Neath
Swansea
Road network
M3M5

The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and Wales in the United Kingdom. Major towns and cities along the route include Slough, Reading, Swindon, Bristol, Newport, Cardiff and Swansea. Originally referred to as the London-South Wales Motorway, the English section to the Severn Bridge over the River Severn was constructed between 1961 and 1971; the Welsh element was completed in 1993. Another Severn bridge, known as the Second Severn Crossing, was opened in 1996 and the M4 was rerouted.

From London to Bristol, the M4 runs close to the A4, and after crossing the River Severn, following the A48 through South Wales, using the Brynglas Tunnels in Newport, it terminates north of Pontarddulais. The M4 is one of only three motorways in Wales; the others being the A48(M) and M48 spurs. Although not signed, European route E30 includes most of the M4.

History

A new road from London to South Wales was first proposed in the 1930s, and the Ministry of Transport announced plans for the M4 as one of the first major post-war trunk road improvement projects in 1956.[2]

The Chiswick flyover, a short section of elevated dual-carriageway built to reduce the impact of traffic travelling between central London and the west, opened in 1959;[3] it was not originally classed as a motorway.[4] The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965. The stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened in 1966, including the Severn Bridge (now part of the M48). The Port Talbot by-pass, also built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was originally the A48(M) motorway, a number now allocated to a short section of motorway near Cardiff. The Ministry of Transport originally intended that the M4 would terminate at Tredegar Park west of Newport, and it was only following the creation of the Welsh Office that the Government became committed to a high-standard dual carriageway to Pont Abraham in Carmarthenshire.[5]

The English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile (80 km) stretch between Junctions 9 and 15 (Maidenhead and Swindon) was opened to traffic.[6] The Welsh section was completed in 1993, when the Briton Ferry motorway bridge opened. The Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, and the new M49 was opened to connect the new crossing to the M5.[7]

In June 1999 the section of the third lane (the lane nearest the central reservation) between Junctions 2 and 3 was converted to a bus lane, first as a pilot scheme and then permanently in 2001. A lower speed limit was introduced along the bus lane section at the same time[8] (the lane was however reverted to general traffic use by the incoming coalition government in late 2010).[9]

In April 2005 speed checks carried out by police camera vans between Junction 14 and Junction 18 led to a public protest, involving a "go-slow" of several hundred vehicles along the affected sections of the motorway.[10]

Between 2007 and January 2010 the section from Castleton (Junction 29) to Coryton (Junction 32) was widened to six lanes.[11] The scheme was formally opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales.

During 2009 the Newport section of the motorway between Junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. In February 2010 it was proposed that the M4 in South Wales would become the first hydrogen highway with hydrogen stations provided along the route, with an aspiration for further stations to be provided along the M4 into South West England over time.[12] A similar claim was made for a 30-mile (48 km) section of road in Scotland close to Aberdeen in September 2009 with refuelling points at Bridge of Don, Ellon and Peterhead.[13]

The original (A48(M)) bridge over the River Neath is to the right, the new M4 bridge is to the left

In October 2010 the new Secretary of State for Transport, Philip Hammond, announced that the bus lane in the London section would be suspended for 18 months from 24 December 2010, be brought back into use temporarily for the 2012 Summer Olympics, and then be removed.[14]

Between 2008 and 2010, Junction 11, near Reading, was extensively remodelled with a new four-lane motorway junction, two new road bridges and other works.[15] The £65m scheme included work on the Mereoak roundabout and part of the A33 Swallowfield Bypass near Shinfield, and also the conversion of the two existing bridges, one of which is available only to pedestrians and cyclists and the other to buses.[16] It also involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, and the construction of a long footbridge network, a new bus-lane and a new gyratory. Sound barriers for nearby residential areas were also installed.[17] In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox and turn it into a bat roost was announced by the developers.[18]

The table below shows the timeline for the construction of the motorway on a section by section basis.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

Year opened 1961 1963 1965 1966 1967 1971 1972 1977 1980 1994
Section(s) J7–9 J5–7 J1–5 J18–23
J39–41
J22–28 J9–18 J44–46 J28–29
J32–35
J37–39
J46–49
J29–32
J35–37
J41–44
An animated map showing build progress at five-year (or greater) intervals.
Note: When the Second Severn Crossing was opened in 1996 the M4 was re-routed to cross the new bridge; the previous section of motorway between Junctions 21 to 23 was renamed the M48.[25]
Other Languages
العربية: خط إم4 السريع
Cymraeg: M4
Deutsch: M4 motorway
español: Autopista M4
italiano: Motorway M4
עברית: כביש M4
Simple English: M4 motorway
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: M4 (Engleska)