Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
INN: Lysergide
LSD-2D-skeletal-formula-and-3D-models.png
2D structural formula and 3D models of LSD
Clinical data
Pronunciation/daɪ eθəl ˈæmaɪd/, /æmɪd/, or /eɪmaɪd/[3][4][5]
SynonymsLSD, LSD-25, Acid, Delysid, others
AHFS/Reference
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Dependence
liability
Low[1]
Addiction
liability
Low-rare[2]
Routes of
administration
By mouth, under the tongue, intravenous
Drug classHallucinogen (serotonergic psychedelic)
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability71%[6]
Protein bindingUnknown[7]
MetabolismLiver (CYP450)[6]
Metabolites2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD[6]
Onset of action30–40 minutes[8]
half-life3.6 hours[6][9]
Duration of action8–12 hours[10]
ExcretionKidneys[6][9]
Identifiers
50-37-3 ☑Y
5761
17
DB04829 ☑Y
5558 ☑Y
8NA5SWF92O
CHEBI:6605 ☑Y
ChEMBL263881 ☑Y
PDB RCSB PDB)
100.000.031 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC20H25N3O
Molar mass323.44 g·mol−1
3D model (Interactive image
Melting point80 to 85 °C (176 to 185 °F)
  (verify)

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a hallucinogenic drug.[11] Effects typically include altered thoughts, feelings, and awareness of one's surroundings.[11] Many users see or hear things that do not exist.[12] Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are typical.[13] Effects typically begin within half an hour and can last for up to 12 hours.[13] It is used mainly as a recreational drug and for spiritual reasons.[13][14]

While LSD does not appear to be addictive, tolerance with use of increasing doses may occur.[11][15] Adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible.[7] Distressing flashbacks, a condition called hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, may occur despite no further use.[16][17] Death as a result of LSD is very rare, though occasionally occurs via accidents.[13] The effects of LSD are believed to occur as a result of alterations in the serotonin system.[13] As little as 20 micrograms can produce an effect.[13] In pure form LSD is clear or white in color, has no smell, and is crystalline.[11] It breaks down with exposure to ultraviolet light.[13]

In the United States, as of 2017, about 10% of people have used LSD at some point in their life, while 0.7% have used it in the last year.[12] It was most popular in the 1960s to 1980s.[13] LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue.[11] It is most often sold on blotter paper and less commonly as tablets or in gelatin squares.[13] There are no known treatments for addiction, if it occurs.[16]

LSD was first made by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from lysergic acid, a chemical from the fungus ergot.[13][16] Hofmann discovered its hallucinogenic properties in 1943.[18] In the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) believed the drug might be useful for mind control so tested it on people, some without their knowledge, in a program called MKUltra.[19] LSD was sold as a medication for research purposes under the trade-name Delysid in the 1950s and 1960s.[13][20] It was listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance by the United Nations in 1971.[13] It currently has no approved medical use.[13] In Europe, as of 2011, the typical cost of a dose was between €4.50 and €25.[13]

Uses

Recreational

Pink elephant blotters containing LSD

LSD is commonly used as a recreational drug.[21]

Spiritual

LSD is considered an entheogen because it can catalyze intense spiritual experiences, during which users may feel they have come into contact with a greater spiritual or cosmic order. Users sometimes report out of body experiences. In 1966, Timothy Leary established the League for Spiritual Discovery with LSD as its sacrament.[22][23] Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the texts of ancient civilizations.[24]

Medical

LSD currently has no approved uses in medicine.[25][26] A meta analysis concluded that a single dose was effective at reducing alcohol consumption in alcoholism.[27] LSD has also been studied in depression, anxiety, and drug dependence, with positive preliminary results.[28]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: LSD
Alemannisch: LSD
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azərbaycanca: LSD
беларуская: ЛСД
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: ЛСД
български: ЛСД
bosanski: LSD
català: LSD
Cymraeg: LSD
dansk: LSD
Deutsch: LSD
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español: LSD
Esperanto: LSD
euskara: LSD
فارسی: ال‌اس‌دی
føroyskt: LSD
français: LSD
galego: LSD
hrvatski: Lizergid (LSD)
Bahasa Indonesia: Asam lisergat dietilamida
íslenska: LSD
italiano: LSD
עברית: LSD
ქართული: ლსდ
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日本語: LSD (薬物)
norsk: LSD
norsk nynorsk: LSD
occitan: LSD
português: LSD
русский: ЛСД
shqip: LSD
sicilianu: LSD
slovenščina: LSD
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dietilamid liserginske kiseline
suomi: LSD
svenska: LSD
Türkçe: LSD
українська: ЛСД
Tiếng Việt: LSD