Lymphoma

Lymphoma
Lymphoma macro.jpg
Follicular lymphoma replacing a lymph node
SpecialtyHematology and oncology
SymptomsEnlarged lymph nodes, fever, sweats, unintended weight loss, itching, feeling tired[1][2]
Risk factorsEpstein–Barr virus, autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, tobacco smoking[2][3]
Diagnostic methodLymph node biopsy[1][2]
TreatmentChemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, surgery[1][2]
PrognosisAverage five year survival 85% (USA)[4]
Frequency4.9 million (2015)[5]
Deaths204,700 (2015)[6]

Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).[7] The name often refers to just the cancerous versions rather than all such tumors.[7] Signs and symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, drenching sweats, unintended weight loss, itching, and constantly feeling tired.[1][2] The enlarged lymph nodes are usually painless.[1] The sweats are most common at night.[1][2]

There are dozens of subtypes of lymphomas.[8] The two main categories of lymphomas are Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) and the non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).[9] The World Health Organization (WHO) includes two other categories as types of lymphoma: multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases.[10] About 90% of lymphomas are non-Hodgkin lymphomas.[9][11] Lymphomas and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.[12]

Risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma include infection with Epstein–Barr virus and a history of the disease in the family.[1] Risk factors for common types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas include autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus, immunosuppressant medications, and some pesticides.[2][13] Eating large amounts of red meat and tobacco smoking may also increase the risk.[3][14][15] Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy.[1][2] Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also be useful in the diagnosis.[2] Medical imaging may then be done to determine if and where the cancer has spread.[1][2] Lymphoma most often spreads to the lungs, liver, and brain.[1][2]

Treatment may involve one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and surgery.[1][2] In some non-Hodgkin lymphomas, an increased amount of protein produced by the lymphoma cells causes the blood to become so thick that plasmapheresis is performed to remove the protein.[2] Watchful waiting may be appropriate for certain types.[2] The outcome depends on the subtype with some being curable and treatment prolonging survival in most.[9] The five-year survival rate in the United States for all Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes is 85%,[4] while that for non-Hodgkin lymphomas is 69%.[16] Worldwide, lymphomas developed in 566,000 people in 2012 and caused 305,000 deaths.[10] They make up 3–4% of all cancers, making them as a group the seventh-most common form.[10][17] In children, they are the third-most common cancer.[18] They occur more often in the developed world than the developing world.[10]

Signs and symptoms

The lymph nodes where lymphoma most commonly develops
Lymphoma and lymphatic system

Lymphoma may present with certain nonspecific symptoms; if the symptoms are persistent, an evaluation to determine their cause, including possible lymphoma, should be undertaken.

Other Languages
العربية: لمفوما
asturianu: Linfoma
български: Лимфома
català: Limfoma
čeština: Lymfom
ދިވެހިބަސް: ލިމްފޯމާ
Ελληνικά: Λέμφωμα
español: Linfoma
euskara: Linfoma
فارسی: لنفوم
français: Lymphome
Gaeilge: An liomfóma
galego: Linfoma
한국어: 림프종
հայերեն: Լիմֆոմա
hrvatski: Limfom
Bahasa Indonesia: Limfoma
interlingua: Lymphoma
italiano: Linfoma
עברית: לימפומה
Кыргызча: Лимфосаркома
Latina: Lymphoma
latviešu: Limfoma
lietuvių: Limfoma
македонски: Малиген лимфом
മലയാളം: ലിംഫോമ
Bahasa Melayu: Limfoma
Nederlands: Maligne lymfoom
नेपाल भाषा: लिम्फोमा
norsk: Lymfekreft
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲିମ୍ଫୋମା
polski: Chłoniaki
português: Linfoma
română: Limfom
русский: Лимфома
Simple English: Lymphoma
slovenščina: Limfom
српски / srpski: Лимфом
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Limfom
suomi: Lymfooma
svenska: Lymfom
Türkçe: Lenfoma
українська: Лімфома
Vahcuengh: Binghbaeznou
Tiếng Việt: Lymphoma
粵語: 淋巴癌
中文: 淋巴瘤