Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.[1]

The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation.[2]

The divide centered primarily on two points: the proper source of authority in the church, often called the formal principle of the Reformation, and the doctrine of justification, often called the material principle of Lutheran theology.[a] Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition.[3]

Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination.


Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism

The name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519.[4] Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.[2]

Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel".[4] The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition also used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed. As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists.

In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church.[2]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lutheranisme
العربية: لوثرية
arpetan: Lutèranismo
asturianu: Luteranismu
azərbaycanca: Lüteranlıq
تۆرکجه: لوتریانیسم
Bân-lâm-gú: Luther-phài
беларуская: Лютэранства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лютэранства
български: Лутеранство
bosanski: Luteranizam
brezhoneg: Luteriegezh
català: Luteranisme
čeština: Luteránství
eesti: Luterlus
Ελληνικά: Λουθηρανισμός
español: Luteranismo
Esperanto: Luteranismo
euskara: Luteranismo
føroyskt: Lutheranisma
français: Luthéranisme
furlan: Luteranisim
Gaeilge: Liútarachas
galego: Luteranismo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Luther kau-phai
한국어: 루터교
हिन्दी: लूथरवाद
hrvatski: Luterani
Ilokano: Luteranismo
Bahasa Indonesia: Gereja Lutheran
interlingua: Lutheranismo
italiano: Luteranesimo
עברית: לותרניזם
ქართული: ლუთერანობა
kaszëbsczi: Lëtërstwò
Kiswahili: Walutheri
kurdî: Luterîtî
Кыргызча: Лютерчилик
لۊری شومالی: لوتریانیسم
latviešu: Luterisms
lietuvių: Liuteronybė
Limburgs: Lutheranisme
Lingua Franca Nova: Luteranisme
lumbaart: Lüteranesim
македонски: Лутеранство
Malagasy: Loteranisma
മലയാളം: ലൂഥറനിസം
მარგალური: ლუთერანობა
Bahasa Melayu: Lutheranisme
Mirandés: Luteranismo
Nederlands: Lutheranisme
polski: Luteranizm
português: Luteranismo
română: Luteranism
русский: Лютеранство
Simple English: Lutheranism
slovenščina: Luteranstvo
српски / srpski: Лутеранизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Luteranizam
svenska: Lutherdom
Tagalog: Luteranismo
Türkçe: Lütercilik
українська: Лютеранство
اردو: لوتھریت
Tiếng Việt: Giáo hội Luther
Winaray: Luteranismo
粵語: 路德會
Zazaki: Lutheranizm
žemaitėška: Liuteruonībė
中文: 信義宗