Lung cancer

Lung cancer
Other namesLung carcinoma
A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)
SymptomsCoughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, chest pains[1]
Usual onset~70 years[2]
TypesSmall-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)[3]
Risk factors
Diagnostic methodMedical imaging, tissue biopsy[6][7]
TreatmentSurgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy[7]
PrognosisFive-year survival rate 17.4% (US)[2]
Frequency3.3 million affected as of 2015[8]
Deaths1.7 million (2015)[9]

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma,[7] is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.[10] This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.[11] Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas.[12] The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).[3] The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.[1]

The vast majority (85%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term tobacco smoking.[4] About 10–15% of cases occur in people who have never smoked.[13] These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke, or other forms of air pollution.[4][5][14][15] Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans.[7] The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy which is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guidance.[6][16]

Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention.[17] Treatment and long-term outcomes depend on the type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the person's overall health.[7] Most cases are not curable.[3] Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.[7] NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.[18]

Worldwide in 2012, lung cancer occurred in 1.8 million people and resulted in 1.6 million deaths.[12] This makes it the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and second most common in women after breast cancer.[19] The most common age at diagnosis is 70 years.[2] Overall, 17.4% of people in the United States diagnosed with lung cancer survive five years after the diagnosis,[2] while outcomes on average are worse in the developing world.[20]

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms which may suggest lung cancer include:[1]

If the cancer grows in the airways, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. The obstruction can also lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, and predispose to pneumonia.[1]

Depending on the type of tumor, paraneoplastic phenomena — symptoms not due to the local presence of cancer — may initially attract attention to the disease.[21] In lung cancer, these phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, abnormally concentrated urine and diluted blood), ectopic ACTH production, or Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to autoantibodies). Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus.[1]

Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (poor appetite, weight loss, fever, fatigue) are not specific.[6] In many people, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention.[22] Symptoms that suggest the presence of metastatic disease include weight loss, bone pain, and neurological symptoms (headaches, fainting, convulsions, or limb weakness).[1] Common sites of spread include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, opposite lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys.[22] About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest radiography.[16]

Other Languages
العربية: سرطان الرئة
azərbaycanca: Ağciyər xərçəngi
Bân-lâm-gú: Hì-gâm
беларуская: Рак лёгкага
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Рак лёгкіх
bosanski: Rak pluća
Чӑвашла: Ӳпке ракĕ
čeština: Karcinom plic
davvisámegiella: Geahpesboras
Diné bizaad: Atsʼiis naałdzid
eesti: Kopsuvähk
Esperanto: Pulma kancero
فارسی: سرطان ریه
français: Cancer du poumon
한국어: 폐암
հայերեն: Թոքի քաղցկեղ
hrvatski: Rak pluća
Bahasa Indonesia: Kanker paru-paru
íslenska: Lungnakrabbamein
latviešu: Plaušu vēzis
magyar: Tüdőrák
Bahasa Melayu: Barah peparu
Nederlands: Longkanker
日本語: 肺癌
norsk: Lungekreft
norsk nynorsk: Lungekreft
polski: Rak płuca
português: Câncer de pulmão
română: Cancer pulmonar
русский: Рак лёгкого
Simple English: Lung cancer
slovenščina: Pljučni rak
српски / srpski: Rak pluća
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rak pluća
svenska: Lungcancer
українська: Рак легені
Tiếng Việt: Ung thư phổi
粵語: 肺癌
中文: 肺癌