Born in Motril, Granada province, he was ordained at the age of 14. He served as a lector at the cathedral of Córdoba, canon at the cathedral of Zamora, and professor in the Colegio de Santiago in Granada.
He supported Philip V of Spain and the Bourbons during the War of Spanish Succession, and was named by Philip bishop of Cartagena on 9 February 1705, as well as viceroy of Valencia and Murcia. Pope Clement X named him cardinal on 29 November 1719. He served as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1728–1729), and as a crown-cardinal (circa 1732).
Plaza del Cardenal Belluga, Cardinal Belluga Square, seen from the Cathedral of Murcia.
He undertook major urban development and revitalization schemes in Murcia and in Vega Baja del Segura, where he initiated the colonization of uncultivated lands, founded new towns, established a seminary for theologians, drained swamps, and built hospices and hospitals. The Plaza del Cardenal Belluga in Murcia is named after him. The Cathedral of Murcia, the episcopal palace of the Diocese of Cartagena, and the Town Hall (with a controversial extension to the town hall by Rafael Moneo) are found on this square.
In 1736, he provided support to the Capuchin missionary Francesco della Penna when the latter sought help for his mission in Tibet.