Low Countries

The Low Countries as seen from space

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (Dutch: de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, French: les Pays Bas), is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands, Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.[1][2] This wide area of Western Europe roughly stretches from the French département du Nord at its southwestern point, to German East Frisia at its northeastern point.

The Low Countries is often considered to include inland areas with strong links, such as Luxembourg today, and historically, parts of the German Rhineland. However the region encompasses mostly coastal areas bounded by the North Sea or the English Channel. Historically, the regions without access to the sea have linked themselves politically and economically to those with access to form various unions of ports and hinterland. Within the European Union the region's political grouping is still referred to as the Benelux (short for Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg).

During the Roman empire the region contained a militarized frontier and contact point between Rome and Germany. With the collapse of the empire, the Low Countries were the scene of the early independent trading centres, that marked the reawakening of Europe in the 12th century. In that period, they rivalled northern Italy as one of the most densely populated regions of Western Europe. Most of the cities were governed by guilds and councils along with a figurehead ruler; interaction with their ruler was regulated by a strict set of rules describing what the latter could and could not expect from them. All of the regions mainly depended on trade, manufacturing and the encouragement of the free flow of goods and craftsmen.

Dutch and French dialects were the main languages used in secular city life.

Terminology

The Low Countries from 1556 to 1648
Southern part of the Low Countries with bishopry towns and abbeys ca. 7th century. Abbeys were the onset to larger villages and even some towns.

Historically, the term Low Countries arose at the Court of the Dukes of Burgundy, who used the term les pays de par deçà (roughly, "the lands over here") for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà (roughly, "the lands over there") for the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, which were part of their realm but geographically disconnected from the Low Countries.[3][4] Governor Mary of Hungary used both the expressions les pays de par deça and Pays d'Embas (roughly, the "lands down here"), which evolved to Pays-Bas or Low Countries. Today the term is typically fitted to modern political boundaries[citation needed] and used in the same way as the term Benelux, which also includes Luxembourg.

The name of the modern country the Netherlands has the same meaning and origin as the term "low countries" due to "nether" meaning "lower". The same name of these countries can be found in other European languages, for example German Niederlände, French, les Pays-Bas, and so on, which all literally mean "the Low Countries". In the Dutch language itself (known in Dutch as Nederlands, meaning "Netherlandish") no plural is used for the name of the modern country. So Nederland (singular) is used for the modern nation and de Nederlanden (plural) for the 16th century domains of Charles V. (However, in official use the name of the Dutch kingdom is still Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), a name deriving from the 19th-century origins of the kingdom which originally included present-day Belgium.)

In Dutch, and to a lesser extent in English, the Low Countries colloquially means the Netherlands and Belgium, sometimes the Netherlands and Flanders—the Dutch-speaking north of Belgium. (This version does not include Luxembourg.) For example, a "Derby der Lage Landen" (Derby of the Low Countries), is a sports event between Belgium and the Netherlands.

"Belgium" was renamed only in 1830, after splitting from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in order to distinguish it from its northern neighbour. It had previously also commonly been referred to as one part of the geographic "Netherlands", being the part which remained in the hands of the Habsburg heirs of the Burgundian Dukes until the French Revolution. Politically, before the Napoleonic wars, it was referred to as the "Southern", "Spanish" or later "Austrian" Netherlands. It is still referred to as part of the "low countries".

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lae Lande
Bân-lâm-gú: Kē-tē Chu-kok
eesti: Madalmaad
Esperanto: Malaltaj Landoj
한국어: 저지대 국가
hrvatski: Niske Zemlje
íslenska: Niðurlönd
Bahasa Melayu: Negeri-Negeri Pamah
Nederlands: Nederlanden
norsk nynorsk: Nederlanda
Simple English: Low Countries
slovenčina: Nizozemsko
српски / srpski: Низоземске
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nizozemske
Türkçe: Felemenk
українська: Нижні країни
West-Vlams: Lêge Landn
中文: 低地国家