Louisiana

State of Louisiana
État de Louisiane  (French)
Flag of LouisianaState seal of Louisiana
FlagSeal
Nickname(s): Bayou State • Creole State • Pelican State (official)
Sportsman's Paradise • The Boot
Motto(s): Union, Justice, Confidence
Map of the United States with Louisiana highlighted
Official languageNo official language
Spoken languages

As of 2010[1]

DemonymLouisianian (French: Louisianais)
CapitalBaton Rouge
Largest cityNew Orleans[2][3][4]
Largest metroGreater New Orleans
AreaRanked 31st
 • Total52,378.13 sq mi
(135,382 km2)
 • Width130 miles (210 km)
 • Length379 miles (610 km)
 • % water15
 • Latitude28° 56′ N to 33° 01′ N
 • Longitude88° 49′ W to 94° 03′ W
PopulationRanked 25th
 • Total4,684,333 (2017 est.)[5]
 • Density93.6/sq mi  (34.6/km2)
Ranked 24th
 • Median household income$45,992[6] (45th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointDriskill Mountain[7][8]
535 ft (163 m)
 • Mean100 ft  (30 m)
 • Lowest pointNew Orleans[7][8]
−8 ft (−2.5 m)
Before statehoodTerritory of Orleans
Admission to UnionApril 30, 1812 (18th)
GovernorJohn Bel Edwards (D)
Lieutenant GovernorBilly Nungesser (R)
LegislatureState Legislature
 • Upper houseState Senate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsBill Cassidy (R)
John Neely Kennedy (R)
U.S. House delegation5 Republicans
1 Democrat (list)
Time zoneCentral: UTC −6/−5
ISO 3166US-LA
AbbreviationsLA, La.
Websitelouisiana.gov
Louisiana state symbols
Flag of Louisiana.svg
Seal of Louisiana.svg
Living insignia
BirdBrown pelican
Dog breedCatahoula Leopard Dog
FishWhite perch
FlowerMagnolia
InsectHoneybee
MammalBlack bear
ReptileAlligator
TreeBald cypress
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
FossilPetrified palmwood
GemstoneAgate
InstrumentDiatonic accordion
MottoUnion, Justice, Confidence
Song"Give Me Louisiana"
"You Are My Sunshine"
"State March Song"
"Gifts of the Earth"
State route marker
Louisiana state route marker
State quarter
Louisiana quarter dollar coin
Released in 2002
Lists of United States state symbols
Louisiana entrance sign off Interstate 20 in Madison Parish east of Tallulah

Louisiana (ə/ (About this sound listen), i-/ (About this sound listen))[a] is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is the 31st in size and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana's capital is Baton Rouge and its largest city is New Orleans. It is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, and the largest by total area is Plaquemines. Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.

Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp.[10][self-published source] These contain a rich southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, and has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants.[10] Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, and four that have not yet received recognition.[11]

Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so strongly influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Haitian, Spanish, Native American, and African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, and in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974.[12][13] There has never been an official language in Louisiana, and the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve, foster, and promote their respective historic, linguistic, and cultural origins."[12]

Etymology

Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane.[14] The suffix -ana (or -ane) is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus, roughly, Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Louisiana
አማርኛ: ሉዊዚያና
Ænglisc: Louisiāna
العربية: لويزيانا
aragonés: Loisiana
arpetan: Louisiana
asturianu: Louisiana
Avañe'ẽ: Luisiana
Aymar aru: Louisiana suyu
azərbaycanca: Luiziana
Bân-lâm-gú: Louisiana
беларуская: Луізіяна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Луізыяна
भोजपुरी: लुइसियाना
Bikol Central: Louisiana
Bislama: Louisiana
български: Луизиана
Boarisch: Louisiana
bosanski: Louisiana
brezhoneg: Louiziana
буряад: Луизиана
català: Louisiana
Чӑвашла: Луизиана
čeština: Louisiana
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Louisiana
corsu: Luisiana
Cymraeg: Louisiana
davvisámegiella: Louisiana
Deutsch: Louisiana
eesti: Louisiana
Ελληνικά: Λουιζιάνα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Luiśiàna
español: Luisiana
Esperanto: Luiziano
euskara: Louisiana
فارسی: لوئیزیانا
Fiji Hindi: Louisiana
føroyskt: Louisiana
français: Louisiane
Frysk: Louisiana
Gaeilge: Louisiana
Gaelg: Louisiana
Gagauz: Louisiana
Gàidhlig: Louisiana
galego: Luisiana
ગુજરાતી: લ્યુઇસિયાના
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌻𐌿𐌴𐌹𐍃𐌹𐌰𐌽𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Louisiana
хальмг: Луизиана
Hawaiʻi: Luikiana
Հայերեն: Լուիզիանա
हिन्दी: लुईज़ियाना
hornjoserbsce: Louisiana
hrvatski: Louisiana
Ilokano: Louisiana
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লুইসিয়ানা
Bahasa Indonesia: Louisiana
interlingua: Louisiana
Interlingue: Louisiana
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓗᐄᓰᐋᓈ
Iñupiak: Louisiana
íslenska: Louisiana
italiano: Louisiana
עברית: לואיזיאנה
Basa Jawa: Louisiana
Kapampangan: Louisiana
ქართული: ლუიზიანა
қазақша: Луизиана
kernowek: Louisiana
Kiswahili: Louisiana
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lwiziana
kurdî: Louisiana
кырык мары: Луизиана
Ladino: Luisiana
لۊری شومالی: لوٙئیزیانا
Latina: Ludoviciana
latviešu: Luiziāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Louisiana
lietuvių: Luiziana
Ligure: Louisiann-a
Limburgs: Louisiana
lumbaart: Louisiana
magyar: Louisiana
मैथिली: लुजियाना
македонски: Луизијана
Malagasy: Louisiana
മലയാളം: ലുയീസിയാന
Māori: Louisiana
მარგალური: ლუიზიანა
مازِرونی: لوئیزیانا
Bahasa Melayu: Louisiana
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Louisiana
монгол: Луйзиана
Nāhuatl: Louisiana
Dorerin Naoero: Louisiana
Nederlands: Louisiana (staat)
Nedersaksies: Louisiana
नेपाली: लुइजियाना
नेपाल भाषा: लुइजियाना
нохчийн: Луизиана
Nordfriisk: Louisiana
norsk: Louisiana
norsk nynorsk: Louisiana
occitan: Loïsiana
олык марий: Луизиана
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Luiziana
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲੂਈਜ਼ੀਆਨਾ
پنجابی: لوئزیانا
Papiamentu: Louisiana
Picard: Louisiane
Piemontèis: Luisian-a
Plattdüütsch: Louisiana
polski: Luizjana
português: Luisiana
română: Louisiana
rumantsch: Louisiana
Runa Simi: Louisiana suyu
русский: Луизиана
саха тыла: Луизиана
संस्कृतम्: लुईजियाना
sardu: Louisiana
Scots: Louisiana
Seeltersk: Louisiana
shqip: Louisiana
sicilianu: Louisiana
Simple English: Louisiana
slovenčina: Louisiana
slovenščina: Louisiana
ślůnski: Luizjana
کوردی: لویزیانا
српски / srpski: Луизијана
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Louisiana
suomi: Louisiana
svenska: Louisiana
Tagalog: Louisiana
தமிழ்: லூசியானா
Taqbaylit: Louisiana
татарча/tatarça: Луизиана (штат)
తెలుగు: లూసియానా
Türkçe: Louisiana
українська: Луїзіана
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Loyizanna Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Louisiana
Volapük: Louisiana
Winaray: Louisiana
ייִדיש: לואיזיאנא
Yorùbá: Louisiana
Zazaki: Louisiana
žemaitėška: Luizėana
Kabɩyɛ: Luwiiziyaaana
Lingua Franca Nova: Louisiana