Lothair I

Lothair I
Lothar I.jpg
Depiction of Lothair I in a Tours gospel book, c. 849–851. Now located in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Holy Roman Emperor
ReignAs Emperor: 817–855;
As King of Italy: 822–855
As King of Middle Francia: 843–855
CoronationBy his father: 817, Aachen;
By Pope Paschal I: 5 April 823, Rome
PredecessorLouis the Pious
SuccessorLouis II
Died29 September 855 (aged 59–60)
ConsortErmengarde of Tours
IssueLouis II
Lothair II
Charles of Provence
Carloman (d. 853)
HouseCarolingian Dynasty
FatherLouis the Pious
MotherErmengarde of Hesbaye
Carolingian denier of Lothair I, struck in Dorestad (Middle Francia) after 850.

Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye,[1] daughter of Ingerman the duke of Hesbaye. On several occasions, Lothair led his full-brothers Pepin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father to protest against attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the father's death, Charles and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three-year civil war (840–843). The struggles between the brothers led directly to the breakup of the Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne, and laid the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany.

Early life and reign

Kingdom of Bavaria

Lothair was born in 795, to Louis the Pious and Emengarde of Hebsbaye. His father was the son of the reigning Emperor, Charlemagne. Little is known of Lothair's early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne. In 814, the elderly Charlemagne died, and left his son Louis the Pious his vast empire. The next year, Lothair, now an adult, was sent to govern Bavaria in 815 for his father the new Emperor Louis the Pious.[1] In 817, Louis the Pious[1] drew up his Ordinatio Imperii.[2] In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir and ordered that Lothair would be the overlord of Louis' younger sons Pippin of Aquitaine (who was 20) and Louis the German (who was 13), as well as his nephew (Lothairs Cousin) Bernard of Italy. Lothair would also inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair, aged 22, was then crowned joint emperor by his father at Aachen.[1] At the same time, Aquitaine and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis, respectively, as subsidiary kingdoms.[2] Following the death of Bernard by Louis the Pious, Lothair also received the Kingdom of Italy.[citation needed] In 821, Lothair married Ermengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugh the Count of Tours.[1]

In 822, he assumed the government of Italy, and at Easter, 5 April 823, he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I, this time at Rome. In November 824, Lothair promulgated a statute, the Constitutio Romana, concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, and he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.[1]

On Lothair's return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme which was carried out in 829,[1] when the young prince was given Alemannia as king.[citation needed] Lothair, however, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alternately master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced.[1]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lotarius I
العربية: لوثر الأول
asturianu: Llotariu I
беларуская: Лотар I
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лётар I
български: Лотар I
brezhoneg: Lotar Iañ
català: Lotari I
Cymraeg: Lothair I
Ελληνικά: Λοθάριος Α΄
español: Lotario I
euskara: Lotario I.a
فارسی: لوتار یکم
français: Lothaire Ier
Frysk: Lotarius I
Gaeilge: Lothair I
galego: Lotario I
հայերեն: Լոթար I
Bahasa Indonesia: Lothair I
italiano: Lotario I
ქართული: ლოთარ I
Lëtzebuergesch: Lothaire I.
Malagasy: Lothair I
Nederlands: Lotharius I
日本語: ロタール1世
polski: Lotar I
português: Lotário I
русский: Лотарь I
Scots: Lothair I
slovenščina: Lotar I. Karolinški
српски / srpski: Лотар I
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lotar I, car Svetog Rimskog Carstva
suomi: Lothar I
svenska: Lothar I
українська: Лотар I
West-Vlams: Lotharius I