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Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (
In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.
When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (
The concept of literal translation may be viewed as an
The term "literal translation" often appeared in the titles of 19th-century
Literal translations ("cribs," "ponies", or "trots") are sometimes prepared for a writer who is translating a work written in a language he does not know. For example,
Literal translation can also denote a translation that represents the precise meaning of the original text but does not attempt to convey its style, beauty, or poetry. There is, however, a great deal of difference between a literal translation of a poetic work and a prose translation. A literal translation of poetry may be in prose rather than verse, but also be error free.
Charles Singleton's translation of