Geographical boundaries Europe
Under the commonly used geographic definition, the boundary between the continents of Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains, Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east, the Greater Caucasus range and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, in the south. Based on that division, transcontinental states Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.
The island of Cyprus in Western Asia is proximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor), but often considered part of Europe and is a current member of the European Union (EU). Armenia is also entirely in Western Asia but is a member of certain European organisations.
Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Sicily, Pantelleria and the Pelagian Islands are located on the African continental plate. The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.
Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but closer to the continent of North America and usually grouped with it. Sometimes Israel is considered as part of geopolitical Europe as well.
Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments, the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa, and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.