List of lemur species

Ring-tailed kawanu resting with hands on wooden branch
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is one of 105 recognized species and subspecies of lemur found only in Madagascar.

Lemurs are strepsirrhine primates, all species of which are endemic to Madagascar. They include the smallest primate in the world, Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs 30 grams (1.1 oz), and range up to the size of the indri, which can weigh as much as 9.5 kilograms (21 lb). However, recently extinct species grew much larger. As of 2010, five families, 15 genera, and 101 species and subspecies of lemur were formally recognized.[1] From 2000 through 2008, 39 new species were described and nine other taxa resurrected.[2] By 2014, the number of species and subspecies recognized had increased to 113; of these, the IUCN classified 24 as Critically Endangered, 49 as Endangered, 20 as Vulnerable, three as Near Threatened, three as Least Concern and four as Data Deficient; two were yet to be evaluated.

The number of lemur species is likely to continue growing in the coming years, as field studies, cytogenetic and molecular genetic research continues.[2] There is not complete agreement over the latest revisions to lemur taxonomy, with some experts preferring an estimated 50 lemur species.[3] The debates are likely to continue, as some scholars label the explosive growth of species numbers as taxonomic inflation. In many cases, classifications will ultimately depend upon which species concept is used.[4] In the case of the lemurs of Madagascar, which have suffered extensively from deforestation and habitat fragmentation, nearly 25% of all species are either Endangered or Critically Endangered, most have yet to be extensively studied, and nearly all populations are in decline. For these reasons, taxonomists and conservationists favor splitting them into separate species to develop an effective strategy for the conservation of the full range of lemur diversity.[2] Implicitly, this means that full species status will help grant genetically distinct populations added environmental protection.

At least 17 species and eight genera are believed to have become extinct in the 2,000 years since humans first arrived in Madagascar.[5][6] All known extinct species were large, ranging in weight from 10 to 200 kg (22 to 441 lb). The largest known subfossil lemur was Archaeoindris fontoynonti, a giant sloth lemur, which weighed more than a modern female gorilla. The extinction of the largest lemurs is often attributed to predation by humans and possibly habitat destruction.[5] Since all extinct lemurs were not only large (and thus ideal prey species), but also slow-moving (and thus more vulnerable to human predation), their presumably slow-reproducing and low-density populations were least likely to survive the introduction of humans.[5] Gradual changes in climate have also been blamed, and may have played a minor role; however since the largest lemurs also survived the climatic changes from previous ice ages and only disappeared following the arrival of humans, it is unlikely that climatic change was largely responsible.[5]

There is strong evidence of extensive declines in extant populations since the introductions of humans, particularly among the larger and more specialized lemurs.[5] As long as habitats continue to shrink, degrade and fragment, extinctions are likely to continue.

Taxonomic classification

Lemurs are classified under eight families, three of which are extinct:

Three images of silky sifakas: First (left) of mother clinging vertically to small tree with two infants holding on to her chest; second (upper right) of adult turning head to look at camera; and third (bottom right) of adult beginning leap from one tree to another, with one hand extended in the direction it is moving
The silky sifaka, one of the most endangered primates in the world.
Mouse lemur perched on branch
Mouse lemurs are the smallest primates in the world.
Bamboo lemur perched on a horizontal piece of bamboo
As of 2014 there are 5 species and 3 subspecies of bamboo lemurs recognized.

The placement of lemurs within the order Strepsirrhini is currently under debate, although both sides agree upon the same phylogenetic tree.[7]

Key

Scientific nameLatin binomial name, or Latin name, of the species
Common nameCommon name of the species, per Wilson, et al. Mammal Species of the World (2005) or Mittermeier, et al. "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar" (2008)FamilyFamily within the Suborder Strepsirrhini to which the species belongs
ClassifiedDate in which the species was formally described and classified, as well as the binomial authority on the species
Average sizeAverage size of adult members of the species, in metric and English weight units
Estimated sizeEstimated Average size of adult members of the extinct species
Conservation statusConservation status of the species, per IUCN as of 2008

Extant species

All lemurs belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini within the order Primates. The 101 extant species and subspecies are divided among 5 families and 15 genera. They range in weight from 30 g (1.1 oz) (Madame Berthe's mouse lemur) to as much as 9.5 kg (21 lb) (indri). Most are highly arboreal and activity patterns range widely from nocturnal to diurnal to cathemeral. Having diversified over millions of years to fill every ecological niche, diets also vary widely, though fruit, leaves, and insects make up the majority of the diet for most species.

Family: Cheirogaleidae

Family Cheirogaleidae consists of the mouse lemurs (smallest of all primates), the dwarf lemurs, and the fork-marked lemurs and their allies. There are 37 extant species.

Gray mouse lemur perched on a wood rod in a wire cage
The gray mouse lemur is one of as many as 21 tiny, nocturnal mouse lemur species.
Lemur with black stripes over its eyes clings to a vertical tree branch.
Fork-marked lemurs are the among the largest of the cheirogaleids.
Scientific nameCommon nameClassifiedAverage sizeConservation statusReferences
Allocebus trichotisHairy-eared dwarf lemur1875, Günther65–90 g (2.3–3.2 oz)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][8][9][10]
Cheirogaleus andysabiniMontagne d'Ambre dwarf lemur2015, Lei et al.282 ± 61 g (9.9 ± 2.2 oz)Not Evaluated[11]
Cheirogaleus crossleyiFurry-eared dwarf lemur1870, A. Grandidier250–500 g (8.8–17.6 oz)[d]Status none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[2][12][13][14][15]
Cheirogaleus grovesiGroves' dwarf lemur2017, McLain et al.410 g (14 oz)Not Evaluated[16]
Cheirogaleus lavasoensisLavasoa dwarf lemur2013, Thiele et al.300 g (11 oz)Not Evaluated[17]
Cheirogaleus majorGreater dwarf lemur1812, É. Geoffroy350–400 g (12–14 oz)Status none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[2][18][19][20]
Cheirogaleus mediusFat-tailed dwarf lemur1812, É. Geoffroy120–270 g (4.2–9.5 oz)Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least Concern
[2][21][22][23]
Cheirogaleus minusculusLesser iron-gray dwarf lemur2000, GrovesunknownStatus none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[2][24][25][26]
Cheirogaleus shethiAnkarana dwarf lemur2016, Frasier et al.115 ± 11 g (4.06 ± 0.39 oz)Not Evaluated[27]
Cheirogaleus sibreeiSibree's dwarf lemur1896, Forsyth MajorunknownStatus iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][28][29][30]
Microcebus arnholdiArnhold's mouse lemur2008, E. Lewis, Jr. et al.49.7 g (1.75 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[31]
Microcebus berthaeMadame Berthe's mouse lemur2000, Rasoloarison et al.30 g (1.1 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][32][33][34]
Microcebus bongolavensisBongolava mouse lemur2007, Olivieri et al.54 g (1.9 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][35][36]
Microcebus borahaBoraha mouse lemur2016, Hotaling et al.[37]
Microcebus danfossiDanfoss' mouse lemur2007, Olivieri et al.63 g (2.2 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][38][39]
Microcebus ganzhorniGanzhorn's mouse lemur2016, Hotaling et al.[37]
Microcebus gerpiGerp's mouse lemur2012, Radespiel et al.68 g (2.4 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[40]
Microcebus griseorufusReddish-gray mouse lemur1910, Kollman46–79 g (1.6–2.8 oz)Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least Concern
[2][41][42][43]
Microcebus jollyaeJolly's mouse lemur2006, Louis et al.60 g (2.1 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][44]
Microcebus lehilahytsaraGoodman's mouse lemur2005, Roos and Kappeler45–48 g (1.6–1.7 oz)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][45][46]
Microcebus macarthuriiMacArthur's mouse lemur2008, Radespiel et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2]
Microcebus manitatraManitatra mouse lemur2016, Hotaling et al.[37]
Microcebus marohitaMarohita mouse lemur2013, Rasoloarison et al.89 g (3.1 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[47]
Microcebus mamiratraClaire's mouse lemur2006, Andriantompohavana et al.61 g (2.2 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][48][49]
Microcebus margotmarshaeMargot Marsh's mouse lemur2006, Andriantompohavana et al.41 g (1.4 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[31]
Microcebus mittermeieriMittermeier's mouse lemur2006, Louis et al.40 g (1.4 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][50]
Microcebus murinusGray mouse lemur1777, Miller60 g (2.1 oz)Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least Concern
[2][51][52][53]
Microcebus myoxinusPygmy mouse lemur1852, Peters43–55 g (1.5–1.9 oz)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][54][55][56]
Microcebus ravelobensisGolden-brown mouse lemur1998, Zimmerman et al.56–87 g (2.0–3.1 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][57][58][59]
Microcebus rufusBrown mouse lemur1834, É. Geoffroy40–50 g (1.4–1.8 oz)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][60][61][62]
Microcebus sambiranensisSambirano mouse lemur2000, Rasoloarison et al.38–50 g (1.3–1.8 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][63][64][65]
Microcebus simmonsiSimmons' mouse lemur2006, Louis et al.78 g (2.8 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][66]
Microcebus tanosiAnosy mouse lemur2013, Rasoloarison et al.unknownNot Evaluated[47]
Microcebus tavaratraNorthern rufous mouse lemur2000, Rasoloarison et al.45–77 g (1.6–2.7 oz)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][67][68][69]
Mirza coquereliCoquerel's giant mouse lemur1867, A. Grandidier300–320 g (11–11 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][70][71][72]
Mirza zazaNorthern giant mouse lemur2005, Kappeler & Roos287–299 g (10.1–10.5 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][73][74]
Phaner electromontisAmber Mountain fork-marked lemur1991, Groves and Tattersall350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][75][76][77][78]
Phaner furciferMasoala fork-marked lemur1839, Blainville350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][75][79][80][81]
Phaner pallescensPale fork-marked lemur1991, Groves and Tattersall330 g (12 oz)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][82][83][84]
Phaner parientiPariente's fork-marked lemur1991, Groves and Tattersall350–500 g (12–18 oz)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][75][76][85][86]

Family: Lemuridae

Family Lemuridae consists of the ring-tailed lemur, the brown lemurs, the bamboo lemurs and the ruffed lemurs. There are 21 extant species and six subspecies.

Two red-fronted lemurs wrapped around each other on a tree limb
The red-fronted lemur, like other brown lemurs, is sexually dichromatic (the sexes have different colorations).
Close-up of five ring-tailed lemurs, four shown clearly; 2 grooming, 1 sunning, and 1 looking at the camera
The ring-tailed lemur is highly social and is the most popularly known lemur species.
Black-and-white ruffed lemur hanging by its rear feet from a rope, holding some leaves in its hands while looking at the camera
Ruffed lemurs are the largest of the extant lemurids.
Scientific nameCommon nameClassifiedAverage sizeConservation statusReferences
Eulemur albifronsWhite-fronted brown lemur1796, É. Geoffroy2.2–2.6 kg (4.9–5.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][87][88][89]
Eulemur cinereiceps[b]Gray-headed lemur1890, Grandidier and Milne-Edwards2–2.5 kg (4.4–5.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][90][91][92]
Eulemur collarisCollared brown lemur1812, É. Geoffroy2.25–2.5 kg (5.0–5.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][93][94][95]
Eulemur coronatusCrowned lemur1842, Gray1.1–1.3 kg (2.4–2.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][96][97][98]
Eulemur flavifronsBlue-eyed black lemur1867, Gray1.8–1.9 kg (4.0–4.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][99][100]
Eulemur fulvusCommon brown lemur1812, É. Geoffroy2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb)Status iucn3.1 NT.svg
Near Threatened
[2][101][102][103]
Eulemur macacoBlack lemur1766, Linnaeus2–2.9 kg (4.4–6.4 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][104][105][106]
Eulemur mongozMongoose lemur1766, Linnaeus1.1–1.6 kg (2.4–3.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][107][108][109]
Eulemur rubriventerRed-bellied lemur1850, I. Geoffroy1.6–2.4 kg (3.5–5.3 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][110][111][112]
Eulemur rufifrons[a]Red-fronted lemur1833, Bennett2.2–2.3 kg (4.9–5.1 lb)Status iucn3.1 NT.svg
Near Threatened
[2][113][114]
Eulemur rufus[a]Red lemur1799, Audebert2.2–2.3 kg (4.9–5.1 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][115]
Eulemur sanfordiSanford's brown lemur1932, Archbold1.8–1.9 kg (4.0–4.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][116][117][118]
Hapalemur alaotrensisLac Alaotra bamboo lemur1975, Rumpler1.1–1.4 kg (2.4–3.1 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][119][120][121]
Hapalemur aureusGolden bamboo lemur1987, Meier et al.1.3–1.7 kg (2.9–3.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][122][123][124]
Hapalemur griseus gilbertiBeanamalao bamboo lemur2007, Rabarivola et al.0.967 kg (2.13 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[125][126]
Hapalemur griseus griseusEastern lesser bamboo lemur1795, Link0.7–1 kg (1.5–2.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][127][128][129]
Hapalemur griseus ranomafanensisRanomafana bamboo lemur2007, Rabarivola et al.0.7–0.85 kg (1.5–1.9 lb)Status none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[130]
Hapalemur meridionalisSouthern lesser bamboo lemur1987, Warter, et al.0.75–1.05 kg (1.7–2.3 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][131][132][133][134]
Hapalemur occidentalisWestern lesser bamboo lemur1975, Rumpler1 kg (2.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][135][136][137]
Lemur cattaRing-tailed lemur1756, Linnaeus2.3–3.5 kg (5.1–7.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][138][139][140]
Prolemur simusGreater bamboo lemur1871, Gray2.2–2.5 kg (4.9–5.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][141][142][143]
Varecia rubraRed ruffed lemur1812, É. Geoffroy3.3–3.6 kg (7.3–7.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][144][145][146]
Varecia variegata editorumSouthern black-and-white ruffed lemur1953, Osman Hill3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][147][148][149]
Varecia variegata subcinctaWhite-belted black-and-white ruffed lemur1833, A. Smith3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][150][151][152]
Varecia variegata variegataBlack-and-white ruffed lemur1792, Kerr3.1–3.6 kg (6.8–7.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][153][154][155]

Family: Lepilemuridae

Family Lepilemuridae consists solely of the sportive lemurs. As of 2014, there are 26 extant species.

Sahamalaza sportive lemur clinging to the side of a dead tree
The Sahamalaza sportive lemur is one of 26 species of sportive lemur.
Scientific nameCommon nameClassifiedAverage sizeConservation statusReferences
Lepilemur aeeclisAntafia sportive lemur2006, Andriaholinirina et al.0.765–0.97 kg (1.69–2.14 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][156][157]
Lepilemur ahmansonorumAhmanson's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.61 kg (1.3 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][158][159]
Lepilemur ankaranensisAnkarana sportive lemur1975, Rumpler & Albignac0.75 kg (1.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][160][161][162]
Lepilemur betsileoBetsileo sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.1.15 kg (2.5 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][163][164]
Lepilemur dorsalisGray-backed sportive lemur1870, Gray0.5 kg (1.1 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][165][166][167]
Lepilemur edwardsiMilne-Edwards' sportive lemur1894, Forsyth Major1 kg (2.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][168][169][170]
Lepilemur fleuretaeFleurete's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.98 kg (2.2 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][171][172]
Lepilemur grewcockorumGrewcock's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.78 kg (1.7 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][173][174]
Lepilemur hollandorumHolland's sportive lemur2009, Ramaromilanto et al.0.99 kg (2.2 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[175]
Lepilemur hubbardorumHubbard's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.99 kg (2.2 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][176][177]
Lepilemur jamesorumJames' sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.78 kg (1.7 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][178][179]
Lepilemur leucopusWhite-footed sportive lemur1894, Forsyth Major0.6 kg (1.3 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][180][181][182]
Lepilemur microdonSmall-toothed sportive lemur1894, Forsyth Major0.8–1.0 kg (1.8–2.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][183][184][185]
Lepilemur milanoiiDaraina sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.72 kg (1.6 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][186][187]
Lepilemur mittermeieriMittermeier's sportive lemur2006, Rabarivola et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][188]
Lepilemur mustelinusWeasel sportive lemur1851, I. Geoffroy1 kg (2.2 lb)Status iucn3.1 NT.svg
Near Threatened
[2][189][190][191]
Lepilemur ottoOtto's sportive lemur2007, Craul et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][192]
Lepilemur petteriPetter's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.63 kg (1.4 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][193][194]
Lepilemur randrianasoloiRandrianasolo's sportive lemur2006, Andriaholinirina et al.0.66–0.88 kg (1.5–1.9 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][195][196]
Lepilemur ruficaudatusRed-tailed sportive lemur1867, A. Grandidier0.76–0.95 kg (1.7–2.1 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][197][198][199]
Lepilemur sahamalazensisSahamalaza sportive lemur2006, Andriaholinirina et al.0.687–0.892 kg (1.51–1.97 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][200][201]
Lepilemur scottorumScott's sportive lemur2008, Lei et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2]
Lepilemur sealiSeal's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.95 kg (2.1 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][202][203]
Lepilemur septentrionalisNorthern sportive lemur1975, Rumpler & Albignac0.75 kg (1.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][204][205][206]
Lepilemur tymerlachsoniHawks' sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.88 kg (1.9 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][207][208]
Lepilemur wrightaeWright's sportive lemur2006, Louis, Jr. et al.0.95 kg (2.1 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][209][210]

Family: Indriidae

Family Indriidae consists of the indri (the largest extant lemur), the woolly lemurs and the sifakas. There are 19 extant species.

Indri sitting on a tree branch resting, with head placed on its knee
The indri is one of the two largest extant lemurs.
Sifaka perched in the "V" of a young tree
Sifakas are vertical clingers and jumpers and are represented by 9 species.
Scientific nameCommon nameClassifiedAverage sizeConservation statusReferences
Avahi betsileoBetsileo woolly lemur2007, Andriantompohavana et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][211]
Avahi cleeseiCleese's woolly lemur2005, Thalmann and Geissmann0.83 kg (1.8 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][212][213]
Avahi lanigerEastern woolly lemur1788, Gmelin0.9–1.3 kg (2.0–2.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][214][215][216]
Avahi meridionalisSouthern woolly lemur2006, Zaramody et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][217]
Avahi mooreorumMoore's woolly lemur2008, Lei et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2]
Avahi occidentalisWestern woolly lemur1898, von Lorenz-Liburnau0.7–0.9 kg (1.5–2.0 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][218][219][220]
Avahi peyrierasiPeyrieras's woolly lemur2006, Zaramody et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][221]
Avahi ramanantsoavaniRamanantsoavana's woolly lemur2006, Zaramody et al.unknownStatus iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[2][222]
Avahi unicolorSambirano woolly lemur2000, Thalmann and Geissmann0.7–1 kg (1.5–2.2 lb)[d]Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][223][224][225][226]
Indri indriIndri1788, Gmelin6–9.5 kg (13–21 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][227][228][229]
Propithecus candidusSilky sifaka1871, A. Grandidier5–6 kg (11–13 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][230][231][232]
Propithecus coquereliCoquerel's sifaka1867, A. Grandidier3.7–4.3 kg (8.2–9.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][233][234][235]
Propithecus coronatusCrowned sifaka1871, Milne-Edwards3.5–4.3 kg (7.7–9.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][236][237][238]
Propithecus deckeniiVon der Decken's sifaka1870, A. Grandidier3–4.5 kg (6.6–9.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][239][240][241]
Propithecus diademaDiademed sifaka1832, Bennett6–8.5 kg (13–19 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][242][243][244]
Propithecus edwardsiMilne-Edwards's sifaka1871, A. Grandidier5–6.5 kg (11–14 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][245][246][247]
Propithecus perrieriPerrier's sifaka1931, Lavauden4.3–5 kg (9.5–11.0 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][248][249][250]
Propithecus tattersalliGolden-crowned sifaka1988, Simons3.4–3.6 kg (7.5–7.9 lb)Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[2][251][252][253]
Propithecus verreauxiVerreaux's sifaka1867, A. Grandidier3–3.5 kg (6.6–7.7 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][254][255][256]

Family: Daubentoniidae

Family Daubentoniidae contains only one surviving species, of the aye-aye. Wide-ranging genetic studies have shown that it separated from the ancestral lemurs long before any other branch of the modern Lemuriformes.[2]

Aye-aye perched on a branch
The aye-aye has many physical traits unique for a primate and is monotypic within its family.
Scientific nameCommon nameClassifiedAverage sizeConservation statusReferences
Daubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye1788, Gmelin2.5 kg (5.5 lb)Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[2][257][258][259]

Unconfirmed species

Reports of new species continue to trickle in from the field. However, these reports require further scientific evaluation before their claims can be verified.


Extinct species

All known extinct lemurs from Madagascar are known from recent, subfossil remains.[260] Conditions for fossilization were not ideal on the island, so little is known about ancestral lemur populations. All known extinct lemurs are thought to have died out after the arrival of humans.

Scientific nameCommon nameFamilyEstimated sizeExtinction dateReferences
Archaeoindris fontoynontiSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae160–200 kg (350–440 lb)350 BCE[261][262][263]
Archaeolemur edwardsiMonkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs)Archaeolemuridae15–25 kg (33–55 lb)1047–1280 CE[264][265]
Archaeolemur majoriMonkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs)Archaeolemuridae15–25 kg (33–55 lb)1047–1280 CE[264][265]
Babakotia radofilaiSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae16–20 kg (35–44 lb)3050 BCE[c][261][262]
Daubentonia robustaGiant aye-ayeDaubentoniidae14 kg (31 lb)891–1027 CE[266][267]
Hadropithecus stenognathusMonkey lemurs (or baboon lemurs)Archaeolemuridae27–35 kg (60–77 lb)444–772 CE[264][265]
Megaladapis edwardsiKoala lemursMegaladapidae40–80 kg (88–176 lb)1280–1420 CE[268][269]
Megaladapis grandidieriKoala lemursMegaladapidae40–80 kg (88–176 lb)1280–1420 CE[268][269]
Megaladapis madagascariensisKoala lemursMegaladapidae40–80 kg (88–176 lb)1280–1420 CE[268][269]
Mesopropithecus dolichobrachionSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae10–14 kg (22–31 lb)245–429 CE[261][262]
Mesopropithecus globicepsSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae10–14 kg (22–31 lb)245–429 CE[261][262]
Mesopropithecus pithecoidesSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae10–14 kg (22–31 lb)245–429 CE[261][262]
Pachylemur insignisPachylemurLemuridae11.5 kg (25 lb)680–960 BCE[270]
Pachylemur jullyiPachylemurLemuridae13 kg (29 lb)Holocene[270]
Palaeopropithecus ingensSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae25–50 kg (55–110 lb)1300–1620 CE[261][262]
Palaeopropithecus kelyusSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae35 kg (77 lb)Late Quaternary[6]
Palaeopropithecus maximusSloth lemursPalaeopropithecidae25–50 kg (55–110 lb)1300–1620 CE[261][262]

See also

Footnotes

  • a In 2008, the red lemur, Eulemur rufus, was split into two species, Eulemur rufus (red lemur) and Eulemur rufifrons (red-fronted lemur). Also, Eulemur rufus was previously known as the red-fronted lemur, but was renamed the red lemur, while Eulemur rufifrons assumed its former name.[2]
  • b Formerly referred to as Eulemur albocollaris or white-collared brown lemur, but was changed in 2008.[2]
  • c This extinction date for Babakotia radofilai is based on a single radiocarbon date from one specimen. For this reason, it is hard to tell when this species became extinct or how it is related to other lemur species.[261]
  • d Average weights reported for this species are based on very small sample sizes or are general ranges for its genus and thus require further research.

Notes

  1. ^ Mittermeier et al. 2010, pp. 86–87
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Mittermeier, R. A.; Ganzhorn, J. U.; Konstant, W. R.; Glander, K.; Tattersall, I.; "Lemur Diversity in Madagascar" (PDF). International Journal of Primatology. 29 (6): 1607–1656. 10.1007/s10764-008-9317-y. 10161/6237.
  3. ^ Yoder, A.D. (2007). "Lemurs: a quick guide" (PDF). Current Biology. 17 (20): 866–868. 10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.050. 17956741.
  4. ^ Tattersall, I. (2007). "Madagascar's Lemurs: Cryptic diversity or taxonomic inflation?". Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews. 16 (1): 12–23. 10.1002/evan.20126.
  5. ^ a b c d e Mittermeier, pp. 50–51
  6. ^ a b Gommery, D.; Ramanivosoa, B.; Tombomiadana-Raveloson, S.; Randrianantenaina, H.; Kerloc'h, P. (2009). "A new species of giant subfossil lemur from the North-West of Madagascar (Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Primates)". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 8 (5): 471–480. Lay summary (27 May 2009).
  7. ^ Cartmill 2010, pp. 10–30
  8. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 130–135
  9. ^ "Allocebus trichotis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  10. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Allocebus trichotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  11. ^ Lei, R.; McLain, A. T.; Frasier, C. L.; Taylor, J. M.; Bailey, C. A.; Engberg, S. E.; Ginter, A. L.; Nash, S. D.; Randriamampionona, R.; Groves, C. P.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Louis, Jr., E. E. (2015). "A New Species in the Genus Cheirogaleus (Cheirogaleidae)" (PDF). Primate Conservation. 29 (2): 1–12. the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015.
  12. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 158–159
  13. ^ Garbutt, pp. 103–104
  14. ^ "Cheirogaleus crossleyi". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  15. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Cheirogaleus crossleyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  16. ^ McLain, A. T.; Lei, R.; Frasier, C. L.; Taylor, J. M.; Bailey, C. A.; Robertson, B. A. D.; Nash, S. D.; Randriamanana, J. C.; "A New Cheirogaleus (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus crossleyi Group) Species from Southeastern Madagascar" (PDF). Primate Conservation. 31: 27–36.
  17. ^ Thiele, D.; Razafimahatratra, E.; Hapke, A. (2013). "Discrepant partitioning of genetic diversity in mouse lemurs and dwarf lemurs – biological reality or taxonomic bias?". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 593–609. 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.019. 23899779.
  18. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 155–157
  19. ^ "Cheirogaleus major". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  20. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Cheirogaleus major". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  21. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 160–163
  22. ^ "Cheirogaleus medius". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  23. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Cheirogaleus medius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  24. ^ Mittermeier, p. 166
  25. ^ "Cheirogaleus minusculus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  26. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Cheirogaleus minusculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  27. ^ Frasier, C. L.; Lei, R.; McLain, A. T.; Taylor, J. M.; Bailey, C. A.; Ginter, A. L.; Nash, S. D.; Randriamampionona, R.; Groves, C. P.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Louis, Jr., E. E. (2016). "A New Species of Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus medius Group) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar" (PDF). Primate Conservation. 30: 59–72.[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ Mittermeier, p. 168
  29. ^ "Cheirogaleus sibreei". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  30. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Cheirogaleus sibreei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  31. ^ a b Louis, E. E.; Engberg, S. E.; McGuire, S. M.; McCormick, M. J.; Randriamampionona, R.; Ranaivoarisoa, J. F.; Bailey, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Lei, R. (2008). "Revision of the mouse lemurs, Microcebus (Primates, Lemuriformes), of northern and northwestern Madagascar with descriptions of two new species at Montagne d'Ambre National Park and Antafondro Classified Forest" (PDF). Primate Conservation. 23: 19–38. the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009.
  32. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 98–100
  33. ^ "Microcebus berthae". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  34. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus berthae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  35. ^ Garbutt, pp. 98–99
  36. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus bongolavensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  37. ^ a b c Hotaling, Scott; Foley, Mary E.; Lawrence, Nicolette M.; Bocanegra, Jose; Blanco, Marina B.; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Kappeler, Peter M.; Barrett, Meredith A.; Yoder, Anne D.; Weisrock, David W. (2016). "Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based species delimitation in Madagascar's mouse lemurs". Molecular Ecology. 25 (9): 2029–2045. 10.1111/mec.13604. 26946180.
  38. ^ Garbutt, p. 99
  39. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus danfossorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  40. ^ Radespiel, U.; Ratsimbazafy, J. H.; Rasoloharijaona, S.; Raveloson, H.; Andriaholinirina, N.; Rakotondravony, R.; Randrianarison, R. M.; Randrianambinina, B. (2011). "First indications of a highland specialist among mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) and evidence for a new mouse lemur species from eastern Madagascar". Primates. 53 (2): 157–170. 10.1007/s10329-011-0290-2. 22198090.
  41. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 101–103
  42. ^ "Microcebus griseorufus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  43. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus griseorufus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  44. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus jollyae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  45. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 124–125
  46. ^ Roos, C.; Kappeler, P.; Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus lehilahytsara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  47. ^ a b Rasoloarison, R. M.; Weisrock, D. W.; Yoder, A. D.; Rakotondravony, D.; Kappeler, P. M. (2013). "Two new species of mouse lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Microcebus) from Eastern Madagascar". International Journal of Primatology. 34 (3): 455–469. Lay summaryTiny Lemur Twins Are 2 New Species; Live Science (26 March 2013).
  48. ^ Garbutt, pp. 97–98
  49. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus mamiratra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  50. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus mittermeieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  51. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 104–107
  52. ^ "Microcebus murinus". In murinus Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference Check |url= value (help) (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. Microcebus murinus. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  53. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus murinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  54. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 108–110
  55. ^ "Microcebus myoxinus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  56. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus myoxinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  57. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 111–113
  58. ^ "Microcebus ravelobensis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  59. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus ravelobensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  60. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 120–123
  61. ^ "Microcebus rufus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  62. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus rufus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  63. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 114–116
  64. ^ "Microcebus sambiranensis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  65. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus sambiranensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  66. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Microcebus simmonsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  67. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 117–119
  68. ^ "Microcebus tavaratra". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  69. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Microcebus tavaratra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  70. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 140–143
  71. ^ "Mirza coquereli". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  72. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Mirza coquereli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  73. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 144–145
  74. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Mirza zaza". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  75. ^ a b c Garbutt, pp. 111–114
  76. ^ a b Mittermeier, pp. 181–182
  77. ^ "Phaner electromontis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  78. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Phaner electromontis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  79. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 174–175
  80. ^ "Phaner furcifer". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  81. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Phaner furcifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  82. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 178–180
  83. ^ "Phaner pallescens". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  84. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Phaner pallescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  85. ^ "Phaner parienti". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  86. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Phaner parienti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  87. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 282–284
  88. ^ "Eulemur albifrons". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  89. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur albifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  90. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 280–281
  91. ^ "Eulemur cinereiceps". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  92. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V.N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur cinereiceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
  93. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 278–279
  94. ^ "Eulemur collaris". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  95. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur collaris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  96. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 297–299
  97. ^ "Eulemur coronatus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  98. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur coronatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  99. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 291–293
  100. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V.N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur macaco ssp. flavifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  101. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 272–274
  102. ^ "Eulemur fulvus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  103. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur fulvus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008. Listed as Near Threatened (NT v3.1)
  104. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 288–290
  105. ^ "Eulemur macaco". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  106. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur macaco". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  107. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 300–302
  108. ^ "Eulemur mongoz". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  109. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur mongoz". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  110. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 294–296
  111. ^ "Eulemur rubriventer". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  112. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur rubriventer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  113. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 275–277
  114. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V.N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur rufifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  115. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Eulemur rufus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  116. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 285–287
  117. ^ "Eulemur sanfordi". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  118. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Eulemur sanfordi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  119. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 222–225
  120. ^ "Hapalemur alaotrensis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  121. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Hapalemur alaotrensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  122. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 228–230
  123. ^ "Hapalemur aureus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  124. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Hapalemur aureus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  125. ^ Mittermeier et al. 2010, pp. 326–327
  126. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2010). "Hapalemur griseus ssp. gilberti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  127. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Hapalemur griseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  128. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 216–219
  129. ^ "Hapalemur griseus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  130. ^ Mittermeier et al. 2010, pp. 328–331
  131. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 226–227
  132. ^ Garbutt, p. 140
  133. ^ "Hapalemur meridionalis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  134. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Hapalemur meridionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  135. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 220–221
  136. ^ "Hapalemur occidentalis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  137. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Hapalemur occidentalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  138. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 246–249
  139. ^ "Lemur catta". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  140. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Lemur catta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  141. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 234–236
  142. ^ "Prolemur simus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  143. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Prolemur simus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  144. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 321–323
  145. ^ "Varecia rubra". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  146. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Varecia rubra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.
  147. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 317–318
  148. ^ "Varecia variegata editorum". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  149. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Varecia variegata ssp. editorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  150. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 319–320
  151. ^ "Varecia variegata subcincta". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  152. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Varecia variegata ssp. subcincta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  153. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 315–316
  154. ^ "Varecia variegata variegata". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  155. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Varecia variegata ssp. variegata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  156. ^ Garbutt, pp. 130–131
  157. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur aeeclis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  158. ^ Garbutt, p. 131
  159. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur ahmansonorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  160. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 204–205
  161. ^ "Lepilemur ankaranensis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  162. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Lepilemur ankaranensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  163. ^ Garbutt, pp. 116–117
  164. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur betsileo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  165. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 202–203
  166. ^ "Lepilemur dorsalis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  167. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur dorsalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  168. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Lepilemur edwardsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  169. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 200–201
  170. ^ "Lepilemur edwardsi". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  171. ^ Garbutt, p. 120
  172. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur fleuretae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  173. ^ Garbutt, p. 128
  174. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur grewcockorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  175. ^ Ramaromilanto, B.; Lei, R.; Engberg, S.E.; Johnson, S.E.; Sitzmann, B.D.; Louis Jr., E.E. (2009). "Sportive lemur diversity at Mananara-Nord Biosphere Reserve, Madagascar" (PDF). Occasional Papers (286): 1–22. 0149-175X. the original (PDF) on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
  176. ^ Garbutt, p. 134
  177. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur hubbardorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  178. ^ Garbutt, pp. 118–119
  179. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur jamesorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  180. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 196–197
  181. ^ "Lepilemur leucopus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  182. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur leucopus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  183. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 194–195
  184. ^ "Lepilemur microdon". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  185. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur microdon". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  186. ^ Garbutt, p. 122
  187. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur milanoii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  188. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur mittermeieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  189. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 192–193
  190. ^ "Lepilemur mustelinus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  191. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Lepilemur mustelinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  192. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur otto". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  193. ^ Garbutt, pp. 134–135
  194. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur petteri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  195. ^ Garbutt, p. 132
  196. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur randrianasoloi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  197. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur ruficaudatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  198. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 198–199
  199. ^ "Lepilemur ruficaudatus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  200. ^ Garbutt, pp. 127–128
  201. ^ Olivieri, G.; Schwitzer, C.; Schwitzer, N.; Craul, M. (2008). "Lepilemur sahamalazensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  202. ^ Garbutt, pp. 120–121
  203. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur seali". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  204. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 206–207
  205. ^ "Lepilemur septentrionalis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  206. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Lepilemur septentrionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  207. ^ Garbutt, pp. 126–127
  208. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur tymerlachsoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  209. ^ Garbutt, pp. 119–120
  210. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Lepilemur wrightae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  211. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Avahi betsileo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  212. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 339–340
  213. ^ Thalmann, U.; Geissmann, T.; Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Avahi cleesei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  214. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 332–334
  215. ^ "Avahi laniger". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  216. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Avahi laniger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  217. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Avahi meridionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  218. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 335–336
  219. ^ "Avahi occidentalis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  220. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Avahi occidentalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  221. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Avahi peyrierasi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  222. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Avahi ramanantsoavanai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  223. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 337–338
  224. ^ Garbutt, pp. 180–181
  225. ^ "Avahi unicolor". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  226. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Avahi unicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  227. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 399–403
  228. ^ "Indri indri". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  229. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Indri indri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  230. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 383–387
  231. ^ "Propithecus candidus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  232. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus candidus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  233. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 370–372
  234. ^ "Propithecus coquereli". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  235. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus coquereli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  236. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 367–369
  237. ^ "Propithecus coronatus". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  238. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus coronatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  239. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 364–366
  240. ^ "Propithecus deckenii". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  241. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus deckenii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  242. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 376–379
  243. ^ "Propithecus diadema". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  244. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus diadema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  245. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 380–382
  246. ^ "Propithecus edwardsi". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  247. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus edwardsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  248. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 388–390
  249. ^ "Propithecus perrieri". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  250. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus perrieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  251. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus tattersalli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  252. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 373–375
  253. ^ "Propithecus tattersalli". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  254. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 360–363
  255. ^ "Propithecus verreauxi". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  256. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; Andriaholinirina, V. N.; Feistner, A.; Felix, T.; Ganzhorn, J.; Garbutt, N.; Golden, C.; Konstant, B.; Louis Jr., E.; Meyers, D.; et al. (2008). "Propithecus verreauxi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  257. ^ Mittermeier, pp. 410–415
  258. ^ "Daubentonia madagascariensis". In Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 62265494.
  259. ^ Andrainarivo, C.; et al. (2008). "Daubentonia madagascariensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  260. ^ Mittermeier, p. 23
  261. ^ a b c d e f g h Mittermeier, pp. 44–46
  262. ^ a b c d e f g Nowak, pp. 89–91
  263. ^ William L. Jungers; Laurie R. Godfrey; Elwyn L. Simons & Prithijit S. Chatrath (28 October 1997). "Phalangeal curvature and positional behavior in extinct sloth lemurs (Primates, Palaeopropithecidae)". PNAS. 94 (22): 11998–12001. 1997PNAS...9411998J. 10.1073/pnas.94.22.11998. PMC PMC 23681. 11038588.
  264. ^ a b c Mittermeier, p. 43
  265. ^ a b c Nowak, pp. 91–92
  266. ^ Mittermeier, p. 50
  267. ^ Nowak, p. 92
  268. ^ a b c Mittermeier, pp. 46–49
  269. ^ a b c Nowak, p. 83
  270. ^ a b Godfrey, Jungers & Burney 2010, p. 354, 361.

References

External links

Other Languages