List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors.

Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere.

Natural languages

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Amis  Republic of China (Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans  South Africa Die Taalkommissie
Akan  Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian  Albania
 Kosovo
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic
 Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Arabic Language International Council
 Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
 Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
 Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences
 Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic
 Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
 Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
 Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
 Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
 Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
 Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus
 Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
 Israel
 Palestine
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Aragonese  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian  Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)
Assamese India Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian  Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani  Azerbaijan
 Iran
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Basque Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country
Navarre Navarre
France French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian  Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla)  Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
India West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Berber  Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
 Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol  Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian  Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese  Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission
Cantonese  Hong Kong Official Language Division Civil Service Bureau Government of Hong Kong
 Macau Departamento dos Assuntos Linguísticos Public Administration and Civil Service Bureau(zh)Government of Macau
Catalan  Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
 Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano  Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee  Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)
Standard Chinese  People's Republic of China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
 Republic of China (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
 Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
 Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish  Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian  Croatia  Bosnia and Herzegovina Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Czech  Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))
Danish  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Sweden Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi  Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch  Netherlands
 Belgium
 Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha  Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)
Estonian  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese  Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino  Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish  Finland Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French  France Académie française (French Academy)
 Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician  Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German  Germany
 Austria
  Switzerland
 South Tyrol
 Belgium
 Liechtenstein
 Luxembourg
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic  Greenland Oqaasileriffik)
Greek  Greece
 Cyprus
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Guarani  Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Hakka  Republic of China (Taiwan) Hakka Affairs Council(客家委員會)
Haitian Creole  Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew  Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi  India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar  India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[citation needed]
Hungarian  Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic  Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian  Indonesia Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Irish  Ireland
 Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian  Italy
 San Marino
  Switzerland
  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese  Japan No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada India Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian  Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language [1]
Kazakh  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer  Cambodia Ministry of culture and fine arts of Cambodia
Korean  South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)
 North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소/社會科學院 語學研究所)
 People's Republic of China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven  Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz  Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Latin  Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian  Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian  Macedonia Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик "Крсте Мисирков", Institut za makedonski jazik "Krste Misirkov")
Malay  Malaysia
 Brunei
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Malayalam India Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx  Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori  New Zealand Māori Language Commission
Mirandese  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec  Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian  Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Chakhar Mongolian  People's Republic of China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali    Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)  Norway Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
 Norway Norwegian Language Council
Occitan  Occitania
 France
 Spain
 Monaco
 Italy
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language) [2]
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
Pashto  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
 Pakistan Pashto Academy
Persian  Iran
 Tajikistan
 Afghanistan
 Uzbekistan
Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Paiwan  Republic of China (Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish  Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)
Portuguese  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
 Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
 Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian  Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
 Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian  Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
 Russia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots  Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[6]
Secwepemctsín  Canada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian and Montenegrin  Serbia
 Montenegro
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi  Pakistan [3]
Sinhala  Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak  Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali  Djibouti
 Ethiopia
 Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian  Germany
 Czech Republic
 Poland
[4]
Spanish  Spain
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Mexico
 El Salvador
 Venezuela
 Chile
 Peru
 Guatemala
 Costa Rica
 Philippines
 Panama
 Cuba
 Paraguay
 Bolivia
 Dominican Republic
 Nicaragua
 Argentina
 Uruguay
 Honduras
 Puerto Rico
 United States
 Equatorial Guinea
 Israel
Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 22 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Swahili  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
 Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish  Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
 Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil India Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
 Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
Taiwanese Hokkien  Republic of China (Taiwan) Ministry of Education (Taiwan)
Tatar  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu India Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum  Timor-Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai  Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Tibetan  Tibet
 People's Republic of China
 India
Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Turkish  Turkey
 Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus
Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian  Ukraine National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Urdu  Pakistan National Language Authority, Pakistan
 India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo  Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Võro  Estonia Võro Institute
Waray  Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian  Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish  United States
 Sweden
 Russia
[5]
Yoruba  Nigeria Yoruba Academy
Other Languages