List of countries by system of government

This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The colour-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.

List of countries

UN member states and observers

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Armenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Botswana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burkina Faso Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chad Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 China, People's Republic of Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement [1]
 Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Congo, Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cuba Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Eswatini Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Gambia, The Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Georgia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guyana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Korea, North Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Korea, South Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Laos Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Libya n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Lithuania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Mali Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mongolia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Myanmar Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Namibia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nauru Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
   Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Peru Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Poland Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Qatar Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 San Marino Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Senegal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Africa Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Suriname Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Switzerland Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Thailand Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tunisia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkey Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United Arab Emirates Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vietnam Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Yemen n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Note that Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania are Islamic Republics.

Partially recognized states

The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Abkhazia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 China, Republic of Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cook Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Niue Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 South Ossetia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Unrecognized states

The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Artsakh Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Somaliland Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Transnistria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
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