Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to triglycerides (i.e., fat).[1] Acetyl-CoA is an organic compound mainly used to transfer to other compounds the energy obtained by the breakdown of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, and ethanol. Through the citric acid cycle, Acetyl-CoA is typically broken down to produce ATP, which is then consumed as a source of energy for many metabolic processes needed for survival or reproduction, such as protein synthesis or muscle contraction. Through lipogenesis, the energy contained in Acetyl-CoA can be efficiently stored for a long time in the form of fats, whenever the total available energy introduced with food is abundant and not all of it is immediately needed for metabolic processes.

Lipogenesis encompasses both the process of fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride synthesis, where fatty acids are esterified to glycerol. Fatty acids are produced in the cytoplasm of cells by repeatedly adding two-carbon units to acetyl-CoA. Triglycerides are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells by bonding three fatty acid molecules to each glycerol molecule. Both processes take place mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Triglicerides produced by liver cells are secreted from the liver in the form of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues.

Fatty acid synthesis

Fatty acid synthesis starts with acetyl-CoA and builds up by the addition of two-carbon units. Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, in contrast to the Fatty acid degradation (oxidation), which occurs in the mitochondria. Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase.[2] The major sites of fatty acid synthesis are adipose tissue and the liver.[3]

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català: Lipogènesi
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