Lion

Lion
Temporal range: Pleistocene–Present
Lion waiting in Namibia.jpg
Male lion in Okonjima, Namibia
Okonjima Lioness.jpg
Female (lioness) in Okonjima
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Carnivora
Suborder:Feliformia
Family:Felidae
Subfamily:Pantherinae
Genus:Panthera
Species:P. leo[1]
Binomial name
Panthera leo[1]
Subspecies
P. l. leo
P. l. melanochaita
daggerP. l. sinhaleyus
Lion distribution.png
Historical and present distribution of Panthera leo in Africa, Asia and Europe

The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the family Felidae; it is a muscular, deep-chested cat with a short, rounded head, a reduced neck and round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. The lion is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females with a typical weight range of 150 to 250 kg (330 to 550 lb) for the former and 120 to 182 kg (265 to 400 lb) for the latter. Male lions have a prominent mane, which is the most recognisable feature of the species. A lion pride consists of a few adult males, related females and cubs. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. The species is an apex and keystone predator, although they scavenge when opportunities occur. Some lions have been known to hunt humans, although the species typically does not.

Typically, the lion inhabits grasslands and savannas but is absent in dense forests. It is usually more diurnal than other big cats, but when persecuted it adapts to being active at night and at twilight. In the Pleistocene, the lion ranged throughout Eurasia, Africa and the Americas from the Yukon to Peru but today it has been reduced to fragmented populations in Sub-Saharan Africa and one critically endangered population in western India. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996 because populations in African countries have declined by about 43% since the early 1990s. Lion populations are untenable outside designated protected areas. Although the cause of the decline is not fully understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are the greatest causes for concern.

One of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture, the lion has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature. Lions have been kept in menageries since the time of the Roman Empire and have been a key species sought for exhibition in zoological gardens across the world since the late 18th century. Cultural depictions of lions were prominent in the Upper Paleolithic period; carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 17,000 years ago, and depictions have occurred in virtually all ancient and medieval cultures that coincided with the lion's former and current ranges.

Etymology

The lion's name, which is similar in many Romance languages, is derived from Latin: leo[4] and Ancient Greek: λέων (leon).[5] The word lavi (Hebrew: לָבִיא‎) may also be related.[6]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Хьэщ
адыгабзэ: Аслъан
Afrikaans: Leeu
Alemannisch: Löwe
አማርኛ: አንበሳ
Ænglisc: Lēo
Аҧсшәа: Алым
العربية: أسد
aragonés: Panthera leo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܪܝܐ
অসমীয়া: সিংহ
asturianu: Panthera lleo
Avañe'ẽ: Leõ
azərbaycanca: Şir
تۆرکجه: آسلان
bamanankan: Waraba
বাংলা: সিংহ
Bân-lâm-gú: Sai
башҡортса: Арыҫлан
беларуская: Леў
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Леў
български: Лъв
བོད་ཡིག: སེང་གེ།
bosanski: Lav
brezhoneg: Leon (loen)
буряад: Арсалан
català: Lleó
Чӑвашла: Арăслан
Cebuano: Panthera leo
čeština: Lev
chiShona: Shumba
chiTumbuka: Nkhalamu
corsu: Lionu
Cymraeg: Llew
dansk: Løve
davvisámegiella: Ledjon
Deutsch: Löwe
dolnoserbski: Law
eesti: Lõvi
Ελληνικά: Λιοντάρι
español: Panthera leo
Esperanto: Leono
euskara: Lehoi
eʋegbe: Dzata
Fiji Hindi: Ser
føroyskt: Leyva
français: Lion
Gaeilge: Leon
Gagauz: Aslan
Gàidhlig: Leòmhann
galego: León
ГӀалгӀай: Лом
ગુજરાતી: એશિયાઇ સિંહ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌻𐌹𐍅𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sṳ̂-é
хальмг: Арслң
한국어: 사자
Hausa: Zaki
Hawaiʻi: Liona
հայերեն: Առյուծ
हिन्दी: सिंह (पशु)
hornjoserbsce: Law
hrvatski: Lav
Igbo: Odúm
Ilokano: Leon
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নংসা
Bahasa Indonesia: Singa
interlingua: Leon
Ирон: Цомахъ
isiXhosa: Ingonyama
isiZulu: Ibhubesi
íslenska: Ljón
italiano: Panthera leo
עברית: אריה
Basa Jawa: Singa
Kabɩyɛ: Tɔɔyʋʋ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಂಹ
Kapampangan: Leon (animal)
ქართული: ლომი
kaszëbsczi: Lew
қазақша: Арыстан
Kinyarwanda: Intare
Kirundi: Intare
Kiswahili: Simba
Kongo: Nkosi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lyon
kurdî: Şêr
Кыргызча: Арстан
кырык мары: Арыслан
лакку: Аслан
latgaļu: Ļovs
Latina: Leo
latviešu: Lauva
Lëtzebuergesch: Léiw
лезги: Аслан
lietuvių: Liūtas
Limburgs: Liew
lingála: Nkɔ́si
Lingua Franca Nova: Leon
la .lojban.: cinfo
lumbaart: Panthera leo
magyar: Oroszlán
македонски: Лав
മലയാളം: സിംഹം
Malti: Iljun
मराठी: सिंह
მარგალური: ნჯილო
مصرى: سبع
Bahasa Melayu: Singa
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Săi (mà-kuŏ dông-ŭk)
мокшень: Орксофта
монгол: Арслан
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ခြင်္သေ့
Nederlands: Leeuw (dier)
नेपाली: सिंह
नेपाल भाषा: सिंह
日本語: ライオン
нохчийн: Лом
Nordfriisk: Lööw
norsk: Løve
norsk nynorsk: Løve
Nouormand: Lion
occitan: Panthera leo
олык марий: Арыслан
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସିଂହ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Arslon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੱਬਰ ਸ਼ੇਰ
پنجابی: ببر شیر
پښتو: زمری
Picard: Lion
Piemontèis: Lion
português: Leão
română: Leu
rumantsch: Liun
Runa Simi: Liyun
русиньскый: Лев
русский: Лев
саха тыла: Хахай
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱟᱴᱟᱠᱩᱞ
Gagana Samoa: Leona
संस्कृतम्: सिंहः पशुः
Scots: Lion
Seeltersk: Leeuwe
Sesotho: Tau
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tau
shqip: Luani
sicilianu: Panthera leo
සිංහල: සිංහයා
Simple English: Lion
SiSwati: Libhubesi
slovenčina: Lev púšťový
slovenščina: Lev
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Львъ
Soomaaliga: Libaax
کوردی: شێر
српски / srpski: Лав
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lav
Basa Sunda: Singa
suomi: Leijona
svenska: Lejon
Tagalog: Leon
தமிழ்: சிங்கம்
Taqbaylit: Izem
татарча/tatarça: Арыслан
తెలుగు: సింహం
ไทย: สิงโต
ትግርኛ: ኣንበሳ
тоҷикӣ: Шер
Tsetsêhestâhese: Péhpe'énanóse'hame
ತುಳು: ಸಿಂಹ
Türkçe: Aslan
Türkmençe: Ýolbars
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Kör
удмурт: Арыслан
українська: Лев
اردو: ببر شیر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: شىر
Vahcuengh: Saeceij
vèneto: Leon
vepsän kel’: Lev
Tiếng Việt: Sư tử
Võro: Lõvi
West-Vlams: Lêeuw (bêeste)
Winaray: Leon
Wolof: Gaynde
吴语:
ייִדיש: לייב
Yorùbá: Kìnìún
粵語: 獅子
Zazaki: Şêr
žemaitėška: Liūts
中文: