Lingua franca

1839 - Trilingual Chinese-Malay-English text - Malay was the lingua franca across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.

A lingua franca (ə/ (About this soundlisten); lit. Frankish tongue),[1] also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.[2]

Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages" facilitated trade) but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.[3][4] The term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used by European merchants and sailors during the 2nd millennium. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca.

Characteristics

Lingua Franca refers to any language used for communication between people who do not share a native language.[5] It can refer to hybrid languages such as pidgins and creoles used for communication between language groups. It can also refer to languages which are native to one nation (often a colonial power) but used as a second language for communication between groups. Finally, lingua franca can refer to a third language which allows inter-comprehension among people speaking different mother tongues as a neutral language or jargon of which nobody can claim ownership[6]. Lingua Franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic history or language structure.[7]

Whereas a vernacular language is the native language of a specific geographical community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, for trade, religious, political or academic reasons. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines. Arabic, French, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russian, serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries.

International auxiliary languages created with the purpose of being lingua francas such as Esperanto and Lingua Franca Nova have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.[8]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Lingua franca
Alemannisch: Lingua franca
asturianu: Llingua franca
azərbaycanca: Linqva franka
Basa Banyumasan: Lingua franca
беларуская: Лінгва франка
български: Лингва франка
brezhoneg: Yezh vehikular
čeština: Lingua franca
Cymraeg: Lingua franca
Ελληνικά: Lingua franca
español: Lengua franca
Esperanto: Lingvafrankao
euskara: Lingua franca
Gaeilge: Francbhéarla
hrvatski: Lingua franca
Ilokano: Lingua franca
Bahasa Indonesia: Lingua franca
interlingua: Lingua franca
italiano: Lingua franca
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lingua franca
latviešu: Lingua franca
lietuvių: Lingua franca
Limburgs: Lingua franca
Lingua Franca Nova: Linguas franca
lumbaart: Lengua franca
македонски: Лингва франка
Bahasa Melayu: Lingua franca
Nederlands: Lingua franca
norsk nynorsk: Lingua franca
occitan: Lingua franca
Plattdüütsch: Lingua franca
português: Língua franca
română: Lingua franca
Simple English: Lingua franca
slovenščina: Lingua franca
српски / srpski: Лингва франка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lingua franca
svenska: Lingua franca
татарча/tatarça: Лингва-франка
Türkçe: Lingua franca
українська: Лінгва франка
Tiếng Việt: Lingua franca
中文: 通用语