Lima bean

Lima beans
Phaseoulus lunatus.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Genus:Phaseolus
Species:P. lunatus
Binomial name
Phaseolus lunatus
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Dolichos tonkinensis Bui-Quang-Chieu
  • Phaseolus bipunctatus Jacq.
  • Phaseolus ilocanus Blanco
  • Phaseolus inamoenus L.
  • Phaseolus limensis Macfad.
  • Phaseolus lunatus var. macrocarpus (Moench) Benth.
  • Phaseolus macrocarpus Moench
  • Phaseolus portoricensis Spreng.
  • Phaseolus puberulus Kunth
  • Phaseolus rosei Piper
  • Phaseolus saccharatus Macfad.
  • Phaseolus tunkinensis Lour.
  • Phaseolus vexillatus Blanco, nom, illeg, non L.
  • Phaseolus viridis Piper
  • Phaseolus xuaresii Zuccagni
Lima beans in a seed catalogue, 1894

Phaseolus lunatus, commonly known as the lima bean, butter bean,[2] sieva bean,[3] or Madagascar bean[citation needed], is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans.

Origin and uses

Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America.  Two gene pools of cultivated Lima beans point to independent domestication events. The Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands while the other is found in the western Andes.[4]

The Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC,[5] and produced a large-seeded variety (lima type), while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety (Sieva type).[5] By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, and in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World.[5]

The small-seeded (Sieva) type is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina, generally below 1,600 m (5,200 ft) above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form (lima type) is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m (1,050 to 6,660 ft) above sea level.[citation needed]

The Moche Culture (1–800 CE) cultivated lima beans heavily and often depicted them in their art.[6] During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, and since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such. Despite the origin of the name, when referring to the bean, the word "lima" is generally pronounced differently than the Peruvian capital.[7][8]

The term "butter bean" is widely used for a large, flat and yellow/white variety of lima bean (P. lunatus var. macrocarpus, or P. limensis[9]).

In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans, also otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans.

In Spain, it is called garrofón, and constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella.

In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" (and less commonly "junior") limas.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Phaseolus lunatus
català: Garrofó
Deutsch: Limabohne
Esperanto: Limofazeolo
français: Haricot de Lima
한국어: 리마콩
Ilokano: Patani
Bahasa Indonesia: Kacang kratok
Kiswahili: Mfiwi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pwachouk
日本語: ライマメ
português: Phaseolus lunatus
српски / srpski: Phaseolus lunatus
Basa Sunda: Roay
suomi: Limanpapu
svenska: Limaböna
Tagalog: Patani
Tiếng Việt: Phaseolus lunatus
中文: 棉豆