Lima

Lima
Lima
Lima2017.png
From top, left to right: Costa Verde (Miraflores District), Plaza Mayor of Lima, Cathedral of Lima, Park of the Reserve, Skyline of the San Isidro District, Monastery of San Francisco, Skyline of the city of Lima
Nickname(s): 
Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings)
La Tres Veces Coronada Villa (The Three Times Crowned Ville)
La Perla del Pacífico (The Pearl of the Pacific)
Lima la Gris (Lima the Grey)
Lima is located in Peru
Lima
Lima
Location within Peru
Lima is located in South America
Lima
Lima
Lima (South America)
Coordinates: 12°03′S 77°02′W / 12°03′S 77°02′W / -12.050; -77.033
500
Inscription1988 (12th Session)

Lima (ə/, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima], Quechua: [ˈlɪma], Aymara: [ˈlima]) is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million,[4] Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by native Peruvians as Limaq, a name that it had acquired over time. It became the capital and most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru (República del Perú). Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.

Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.

Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural, financial and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city.

Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends mainly within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002.

In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, these games will be held at venues in and around Lima, and will be the largest sporting event ever hosted by the country. It also hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest.

Etymology

Lima Foundation by Francisco Pizarro (1535)

According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq (Limaq, pronounced [ˈli.mɑq], which means "talker" or "speaker" in the coastal Quechua that was the area's primary language before the Spanish arrival). This oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.[5]

Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit.

Lima Cathedral in 1846

The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of Kings (Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse, and Lima became the city's name of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both Lima and Ciudad de los Reyes can be seen together.

The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke a highland variety of Quechua in which the word for "talker" was pronounced [ˈrimɑq]).[6] However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua.

Later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river; however, Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be true.[5]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Лима
Afrikaans: Lima
Akan: Lima
Alemannisch: Lima
አማርኛ: ሊማ
Аҧсшәа: Лима
العربية: ليما
aragonés: Lima
arpetan: Lima
asturianu: Lima
Avañe'ẽ: Lima
Aymar aru: Lima
azərbaycanca: Lima
تۆرکجه: لیما
বাংলা: লিমা
Bân-lâm-gú: Lima
беларуская: Ліма
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ліма
भोजपुरी: लीमा
български: Лима
Boarisch: Lima
བོད་ཡིག: ལི་མ།
bosanski: Lima
brezhoneg: Lima
català: Lima
Чӑвашла: Лима
Cebuano: Lima
čeština: Lima
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lima
chiShona: Lima
Cymraeg: Lima
dansk: Lima
Deutsch: Lima
डोटेली: लिमा
Ελληνικά: Λίμα
español: Lima
Esperanto: Limo
estremeñu: Lima
euskara: Lima
فارسی: لیما
Fiji Hindi: Lima
føroyskt: Lima
français: Lima
Frysk: Lima
Gaeilge: Líoma
Gagauz: Lima
Gàidhlig: Lima
galego: Lima
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lima
한국어: 리마
Hausa: Lima
Hawaiʻi: Lima
հայերեն: Լիմա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Լիմա
हिन्दी: लीमा
hornjoserbsce: Lima
hrvatski: Lima
Ido: Lima
Bahasa Indonesia: Lima, Peru
interlingua: Lima
Interlingue: Lima
Ирон: Лимæ
íslenska: Líma
italiano: Lima (Perù)
עברית: לימה
kalaallisut: Lima
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲಿಮಾ
къарачай-малкъар: Лима
ქართული: ლიმა
қазақша: Лима
Kinyarwanda: Lima
Kiswahili: Lima
Kongo: Lima
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lima
kurdî: Lîma
Кыргызча: Лима
Ladino: Lima
Latina: Lima
latviešu: Lima
Lëtzebuergesch: Lima
lietuvių: Lima
Ligure: Lìmma
lingála: Lima
Lingua Franca Nova: Lima
Livvinkarjala: Lima
lumbaart: Lima
magyar: Lima
македонски: Лима
Malagasy: Lima
മലയാളം: ലിമ
Māori: Lima
मराठी: लिमा
მარგალური: ლიმა
مصرى: ليما
Bahasa Melayu: Lima
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lima
Mirandés: Lima
Dorerin Naoero: Lima
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Lima (Peru)
Nederlands: Lima (stad)
日本語: リマ
нохчийн: Лима
norsk: Lima
norsk nynorsk: Lima
Novial: Lima
occitan: Lima
олык марий: Лима
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲିମା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lima
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲੀਮਾ
پنجابی: لیما
Papiamentu: Lima
Piemontèis: Lima
Plattdüütsch: Lima
polski: Lima
português: Lima
Qaraqalpaqsha: Lima
qırımtatarca: Lima
reo tahiti: Lima
română: Lima
romani čhib: Lima
rumantsch: Lima
Runa Simi: Limaq
русский: Лима
sardu: Lima
Scots: Lima
Seeltersk: Lima
Sesotho: Lima
shqip: Lima
sicilianu: Lima
Simple English: Lima
slovenčina: Lima
slovenščina: Lima
ślůnski: Lima
српски / srpski: Лима
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lima
suomi: Lima
svenska: Lima
தமிழ்: லிமா
татарча/tatarça: Лима
tetun: Lima
ไทย: ลิมา
Türkçe: Lima
удмурт: Лима
українська: Ліма
اردو: لیما
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لىما
vèneto: Lima
vepsän kel’: Lim
Tiếng Việt: Lima
Volapük: Lima
Võro: Lima
Winaray: Lima
吴语: 利马
ייִדיש: לימא
Yorùbá: Lima
粵語: 利馬
Zazaki: Lima
žemaitėška: Lima
中文: 利馬