Library of Congress Classification

The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries.[1]

LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books (and authors), which also defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074".[a] The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically.[b] Finally, the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982".[c]

The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, and the Putnam Classification System (developed while Putnam was head librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library).[2][3] It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed.

LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis; many of the classification decisions were driven by the practical needs of that library rather than epistemological considerations.[4] Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world.

In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system.[1]

The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the initial letters W and QSQZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Others use LCC's QPQR schedules and include Medicine R.[clarification needed][5][6]

Classification

Java programming books in the QA subclass.
Letter Subject area
A General Works
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
C Auxiliary Sciences of History
D World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc..
E History of the Americas
F History of the Americas
G Geography, Anthropology, and Recreation
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
K Law
L Education
M Music
N Fine Arts
P Language and Literature
Q Science
R Medicine
S Agriculture
T Technology
U Military Science
V Naval Science
Z Bibliography, Library Science, and General Information Resources

Class A – General Works

Class B – Philosophy. Psychology. Religion

Class C – Auxiliary Sciences of History

Class D – World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc.

Class E – History of the Americas

  • Class E does not have any subclasses.

Class F – Local History of the Americas

  • Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not officially adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else[7][8]

Class G – Geography, Anthropology, Recreation

Class H – Social Sciences

Class J – Political Science

  • Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers
  • Subclass JA – Political science (General)
  • Subclass JC – Political theory
  • Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration
  • Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration (North America)
  • Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration (United States)
  • Subclass JL – Political institutions and public administration (Canada, Latin America, etc.)
  • Subclass JN – Political institutions and public administration (Europe)
  • Subclass JQ – Political institutions and public administration (Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Area, etc.)
  • Subclass JS – Local government. Municipal government
  • Subclass JV – Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
  • Subclass JX – International law, see JZ and KZ (obsolete)
  • Subclass JZ – International relations

Class K – Law

Class L – Education

Class M – Music

  • Subclass M – Music
  • Subclass ML – Literature on music
  • Subclass MT – Instruction and study

Class N – Fine Arts

Class P – Language and Literature

The PN-subclass shelf.

Class Q – Science

Class R – Medicine

Class S – Agriculture

Class T – Technology

Class U – Military Science

Class V – Naval Science

Class Z – Bibliography, Library Science

  • Subclass Z – Books (General). Writing. Paleography. Book industries and trade. Libraries. Bibliography
  • Subclass ZA – Information resources/materials
Other Languages
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Klasifikacija Kongresne knjižnice
Tiếng Việt: Lcc