Liao dynasty

Great Liao / Qidan

大遼 (Great Liao)
"Khitan State" / 契丹國 (Khitan State)
916–1125
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
CapitalShangjing (Linhuang)1
Common languagesKhitan, Middle Chinese, Jurchen
Religion
Majority:

Influences from:
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 907–926
Taizu (Abaoji)
• 926–947
Taizong
• 947–951
Shizong
• 951–969
Muzong
• 969–982
Jingzong
• 982–1031
Shengzong
• 1031–1055
Xingzong
• 1055–1101
Daozong
• 1101–1125
Tianzuo
Historical eraMedieval Asia
• Abaoji becomes Khagan of Khitans
907
• Abaoji assumes the title of Celestial Emperor
916
• "Great Liao" adopted as a dynastic name
947
• Signing of the Chanyuan Treaty with Song
1005
• Emergence of Jin dynasty
1114–1115
• Emperor Tianzuo captured by Jin
1125
• Western Liao established
1124
Area
947 est.[1][2]2,600,000 km2 (1,000,000 sq mi)
1111 est.[3][4]4,500,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)
CurrencyMostly barter in the nomadic areas, and cash coins in the southern circuit. (See: Liao dynasty coinage)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Khitans
Tang dynasty
Uyghur Khaganate
Later Jìn
Kumo Xi
Shiwei
Balhae
Zubu
Karluks
Jīn dynasty
Northern Liao
Western Xia
Western Liao
Khamag Mongol
Qocho
1. Shangjing (Linhuang) was ranked first of five capitals that were established by Liao, all of which served concurrently as regional capitals of a circuit. The other four capitals included Nanjing (Xijin, today's Beijing), Dongjing (Liaoyang), Xijing (Datong) and Zhongjing (Dading, today's Ningcheng).
History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
Neolithic c. 8500 – c. 2070 BC
Xia c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC
Shang c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC
Zhou c. 1046 – 256 BC
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn
   Warring States
IMPERIAL
Qin 221–206 BC
Han 202 BC – 220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern JinSixteen Kingdoms
Northern and Southern dynasties
420–589
Sui 581–618
Tang 618–907
  (Second Zhou 690–705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms

907–979
Liao 907–1125
Song 960–1279
  Northern SongWestern Xia
  Southern SongJin
Yuan 1271–1368
Ming 1368–1644
Qing 1636–1912
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic of China 1949–present

The Liao dynasty (/;[5] Khitan: Mos Jælud; traditional Chinese: 遼朝; simplified Chinese: 辽朝; pinyin: Liáo cháo),[6] also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao (大遼; 大辽; Dà Liáo), or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur),[7] was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 916 to 1125 over present-day Northern and Northeast China, Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East and North Korea.[8] The empire was founded by Yelü Abaoji, Khagan of the Khitans around the time of the collapse of Tang China and was the first state to control all of Manchuria.[9]

Almost immediately after its founding, the Khitan Empire began a process of territorial expansion, with Abaoji leading a successful conquest of Balhae. Later emperors would gain the Sixteen Prefectures by fueling a proxy war that led to the collapse of the Later Tang (923–936) and would establish tributary relationships with Goryeo after losing in Goryeo–Khitan Wars (1018) against Goryeo.[10] In 1004, Liao Dynasty launched an imperial expedition against the Northern Song. After heavy fighting and large casualties between two countries, the two sides worked out the Chanyuan Treaty. Through the treaty Liao forced the Northern Song to recognize them as peers.

Tension between traditional Khitan social and political practices and Chinese influence and customs was a defining feature of the dynasty. This tension led to a series of succession crises; Liao emperors favored the Chinese concept of primogeniture, while much of the rest of the Khitan elite supported the traditional method of succession by the strongest candidate. So different were Khitan and Chinese practices that Abaoji set up two parallel governments. The Northern Administration governed Khitan areas following traditional Khitan practices, while the Southern Administration governed areas with large non-Khitan populations, adopting traditional Chinese governmental practices.

Differences between Chinese and Khitan society included gender roles and marital practices: the Khitans took a more egalitarian view towards gender, in sharp contrast to Chinese cultural practices that segregated men's and women's roles. Khitan women were taught to hunt, managed family property, and held military posts. Many marriages were not arranged, women were not required to be virgins at their first marriage, and women had the right to divorce and remarry.

The Liao dynasty was destroyed by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1125 with the capture of Emperor Tianzuo of Liao. However, the remnant Khitan, led by Yelü Dashi, established the Western Liao dynasty (Qara Khitai), which ruled over parts of Central Asia for almost a century before being conquered by the Mongols. Although cultural achievements associated with the Liao dynasty are considerable, and a number of various statuary and other artifacts exist in museums and other collections, major questions remain over the exact nature and extent of the influence of the Liao Khitan culture upon subsequent developments, such as the musical and theatrical arts.

Name

The Liao dynasty was officially known as the Khitan (now known as Cathay) or Khitan state in 916. The name "Great Liao" began to appear as the country name between 936 and 947. The dynasty name "Liao" refers to the Liao River in southern Manchuria, the traditional Khitan homeland. Since 983, the state became again known as the Khitan, but "Great Liao" reappeared as the country name in 1066, which lasted until the end of the dynasty.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Liao-dinastie
العربية: مملكة لياو
aragonés: Dinastía Liao
asturianu: Dinastía Liao
azərbaycanca: Liao sülaləsi
Bân-lâm-gú: Liâu
čeština: Říše Liao
Deutsch: Liao-Dynastie
español: Dinastía Liao
Esperanto: Dinastio Liao
français: Dynastie Liao
한국어: 요나라
hrvatski: Dinastija Liao
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Liao
italiano: Dinastia Liao
қазақша: Ляо
latviešu: Liao dinastija
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Liao
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dâi-lièu
монгол: Хятан улс
Nederlands: Liao-dynastie
日本語:
occitan: Dinastia Liao
پنجابی: لیاؤ راجٹبر
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រាជវង្សលៀវ
português: Dinastia Liao
română: Dinastia Liao
русский: Ляо
Simple English: Liao dynasty
српски / srpski: Династија Љао
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dinastija Liao
svenska: Liaodynastin
Türkçe: Liao Hanedanı
українська: Династія Ляо
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Liêu
文言:
吴语: 辽国
粵語: 遼國
中文: 辽朝