Lesotho

Kingdom of Lesotho

'Muso oa Lesotho (Sesotho)
Motto: "Khotso, Pula, Nala" (Sotho)
"Peace, Rain, Prosperity"
Anthem: Lesotho Fatše La Bontata Rona
(English: "Lesotho, land of our Fathers")
Location of Lesotho (dark blue) – in Africa (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union (light blue)
Location of Lesotho (dark blue)

– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)

Location of Lesotho
Capital
and largest city
Maseru
29°28′S 27°56′E / 29°28′S 27°56′E / -29.467; 27.933
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)

Lesothan (Interchangeable)
Lesothonian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Letsie III
• Prime Minister
Tom Thabane
• Deputy prime minister
Monyane Moleleki
• Assembly Speaker
Sephiri Motanyane
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
4 October 1966
Area
• Total
30,355 km2 (11,720 sq mi) (137th)
• Water (%)
0.0032%
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,203,821[1] (144th)
• 2004 census
2,031,348
• Density
68.1/km2 (176.4/sq mi) (138th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$7.448 billion[2]
• Per capita
$3,868[2]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$2.721 billion[2]
• Per capita
$1,413[2]
Gini (2015)54.2[3]
high · 17
HDI (2017)Increase 0.515[4]
low · 160th
CurrencyLesotho loti (LSL), South African rand (ZAR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (South African Standard Time)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+266
ISO 3166 codeLS
Internet TLD.ls
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Lesotho (/ (About this soundlisten),[5] Sotho pronunciation: [lɪˈsʊːtʰʊ]), officially the Kingdom of Lesotho (Sotho: 'Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa. It is one of only three independent states completely surrounded by the territory of another country, and the only one outside of the Italian peninsula. Lesotho is just over 30,000 km2 (11,583 sq mi) in size and has a population of around 2 million. Its capital and largest city is Maseru.

Lesotho was previously the British Crown Colony of Basutoland, but it declared independence from the United Kingdom on 4 October 1966. It is now a fully sovereign state that is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The name Lesotho roughly translates to "the land of the people who speak Sesotho".[6][7]

History

King Moshoeshoe I with his Ministers

The original inhabitants of the area now known as Lesotho were the San people. Examples of their rock art can be found in the mountains throughout the area.[8]

Rule of Moshoeshoe I (1822–1868)

The present Lesotho, then called Basutoland, emerged as a single polity under King Moshoeshoe I in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the Butha-Buthe Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828.

Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the Cape Colony following its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, and subsequently associated with the Orange River Sovereignty and subsequent Orange Free State. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, Eugène Casalis and Constant Gosselin from the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, placed at Morija, developed orthography and printed works in the Sesotho language between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs, helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the Griqua people.

Trekboers from the Cape Colony arrived on the western borders of Basutoland and claimed land rights, beginning with Jan de Winnaar, who settled in the Matlakeng area in May–June 1838. As more Boers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers, even north of the Caledon, claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people. Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Thomas Napier, that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Basotho army at Kolonyama, touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repelling another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically, then defeated the Batlokoa in 1853. In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, and in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in the Free State–Basotho War, losing a great portion of the western lowlands. The last war in 1867 ended when Moshoeshoe appealed to Queen Victoria, who agreed to make Basutoland a British protectorate in 1868.

British rule (1869–1966)

In 1869, the British signed a treaty at Aliwal North with the Boers that defined the boundaries of Basutoland, and later Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories effectively reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size.

Following the cession in 1869, the British initially transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in Thaba Bosiu to a police camp on the northwest border, Maseru, until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the Cape Colony in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on 11 March 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era. He was buried at Thaba Bosiu. In the early years of British rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to other territories that had been forcibly annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho.[9] This led to the Gun War in 1881.[10]

In 1884, Basutoland was restored to its status as a protectorate, with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs.

1959 stamps for the Basutoland National Council

Independence (1966–present)

Basutoland gained its independence from Britain and became the Kingdom of Lesotho in 1966.[11]

In January 1970, the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36. Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party (BCP), declared himself Tona Kholo (Sesotho translation of prime minister), and imprisoned the BCP leadership.

BCP began a rebellion and then received training in Libya for its Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) soldiers of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). Deprived of arms and supplies by the Sibeko faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their Tanzanian base by the financial assistance of a Maoist PAC officer, but they launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons. The main force was defeated in northern Lesotho, and later guerrillas launched sporadic but usually ineffectual attacks. The campaign was severely compromised when BCP's leader, Ntsu Mokhehle, went to Pretoria. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathised with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of Leabua Jonathan. On 4 September 1981, the family of Benjamin Masilo was attacked. In the attack his 3-year-old grandson lost his life. Exactly four days later, Edgar Mahlomola Motuba, the editor of the popular newspaper Leselinyana la Lesotho, was abducted from his home together with two friends and murdered.

The BNP ruled from 1966 until January 1970. What later ensued was a de facto government led by Dr. Leabua Jonathan until 1986 when a military coup forced it out of office. The Transitional Military Council that came to power granted executive powers to King Moshoeshoe II, who was until then a ceremonial monarch. But in 1987 the King was forced into exile after coming up with a six-page memorandum on how he wanted the Lesotho's constitution to be, which would have given him more executive powers had the military government agreed. His son was installed as King Letsie III.

Lesotho mountain village

The chairman of the military junta, Major General Justin Metsing Lekhanya, was ousted in 1991 and replaced by Major General Elias Phisoana Ramaema, who handed over power to a democratically elected government of the BCP in 1993. Moshoeshoe II returned from exile in 1992 as an ordinary citizen. After the return to democratic government, King Letsie III tried unsuccessfully to persuade the BCP government to reinstate his father (Moshoeshoe II) as head of state.

In August 1994, Letsie III staged a military-backed coup that deposed the BCP government, after the BCP government refused to reinstate his father, Moshoeshoe II, according to Lesotho's constitution. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) engaged in negotiations to reinstate the BCP government. One of the conditions Letsie III put forward for this was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. After protracted negotiations, the BCP government was reinstated and Letsie III abdicated in favour of his father in 1995, but he ascended the throne again when Moshoeshoe II died at the age of fifty-seven in a supposed road accident, when his car plunged off a mountain road during the early hours of 15 January 1996. According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 am to visit his cattle at Matsieng and was returning to Maseru through the Maluti Mountains when his car left the road.[12]

In 1997, the ruling BCP split over leadership disputes. Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle formed a new party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD), and was followed by a majority of members of parliament, which enabled him to form a new government. Pakalitha Mosisili succeeded Mokhehle as party leader and the LCD won the general elections in 1998. Although the elections were pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC, the opposition political parties rejected the results.

Opposition protests in the country intensified, culminating in a peaceful demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. Exact details of what followed are greatly disputed, both in Lesotho and South Africa. While the Botswana Defence Force troops were welcomed, tensions with South African National Defence Force troops were high, resulting in fighting. Incidences of sporadic rioting intensified when South African troops hoisted a South African flag over the Royal Palace. By the time the SADC forces withdrew in May 1999, much of the capital of Maseru lay in ruins, and the southern provincial capital towns of Mafeteng and Mohale's Hoek had seen the loss of over a third of their commercial real estate. A number of South Africans and Basotho also died in the fighting.

An Interim Political Authority (IPA), charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country, was created in December 1998. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that the opposition would be represented in the National Assembly. The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats, but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. Elections were held under this new system in May 2002, and the LCD won again, gaining 54 percent of the vote. But for the first time, opposition political parties won significant numbers of seats, and despite some irregularities and threats of violence from Major General Lekhanya, Lesotho experienced its first peaceful election. Nine opposition parties now hold all 40 of the proportional seats, with the BNP having the largest share (21). The LCD has 79 of the 80 constituency-based seats. Although its elected members participate in the National Assembly, the BNP has launched several legal challenges to the elections, including a recount; none has been successful.

On 30 August 2014, an alleged abortive military "coup" took place, forcing then Prime Minister Thomas Thabane to flee to South Africa for three days.[13][14]

Other Languages
Acèh: Lesotho
Afrikaans: Lesotho
Alemannisch: Lesotho
አማርኛ: ሌሶቶ
Ænglisc: Lesotho
العربية: ليسوتو
aragonés: Lesoto
arpetan: Lesothô
asturianu: Lesothu
Avañe'ẽ: Lesóto
azərbaycanca: Lesoto
تۆرکجه: لسوتو
bamanankan: Lesoto
বাংলা: লেসোথো
Banjar: Lesotho
Bân-lâm-gú: Lesotho
башҡортса: Лесото
беларуская: Лесота
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лесота
भोजपुरी: लिसोथो
Bikol Central: Lesoto
български: Лесото
བོད་ཡིག: ལི་སོ་ཐོ།
bosanski: Lesoto
brezhoneg: Lesotho
буряад: Лесото
català: Lesotho
Чӑвашла: Лесото
Cebuano: Lesotho
čeština: Lesotho
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lesotho
chiShona: Lesotho
Cymraeg: Lesotho
dansk: Lesotho
davvisámegiella: Lesotho
Deutsch: Lesotho
ދިވެހިބަސް: ލެސޯތޯ
dolnoserbski: Lesotho
डोटेली: लेसोथो
eesti: Lesotho
Ελληνικά: Λεσότο
español: Lesoto
Esperanto: Lesoto
estremeñu: Lesotu
euskara: Lesotho
eʋegbe: Lezoto
فارسی: لسوتو
Fiji Hindi: Lesotho
føroyskt: Lesoto
français: Lesotho
Frysk: Lesoto
Gaeilge: Leosóta
Gaelg: Lesoto
Gagauz: Lesoto
Gàidhlig: Leasoto
galego: Lesoto
Gĩkũyũ: Lesotho
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lesotho
한국어: 레소토
Hausa: Lesotho
հայերեն: Լեսոթո
हिन्दी: लिसूतू
hornjoserbsce: Lesotho
hrvatski: Lesoto
Ido: Lesoto
Igbo: Lesotho
Ilokano: Lesoto
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: লেসাথো
Bahasa Indonesia: Lesotho
interlingua: Lesotho
Interlingue: Lesotho
Ирон: Лесото
isiZulu: OSotho
íslenska: Lesótó
italiano: Lesotho
עברית: לסוטו
Jawa: Lésotho
Kabɩyɛ: Lesoto
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲೆಸೊಥೊ
Kapampangan: Lesotho
ქართული: ლესოთო
қазақша: Лесото
kernowek: Lesotho
Kinyarwanda: Lesoto
Kiswahili: Lesotho
Kongo: Lesotho
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lezoto
kurdî: Lesoto
Кыргызча: Лесото
Ladino: Lesotho
لۊری شومالی: لسوتو
Latina: Lesothum
latviešu: Lesoto
Lëtzebuergesch: Lesotho
lietuvių: Lesotas
Ligure: Lesòthò
Limburgs: Lesotho
lingála: Lesoto
Lingua Franca Nova: Lesoto
Livvinkarjala: Lesoto
Luganda: Lesotho
lumbaart: Lesotho
magyar: Lesotho
македонски: Лесото
Malagasy: Lesoto
മലയാളം: ലെസോത്തോ
Malti: Lesoto
मराठी: लेसोथो
მარგალური: ლესოთო
مصرى: ليسوتو
Bahasa Melayu: Lesotho
Minangkabau: Lesotho
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lesotho
монгол: Лесото
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လီဆိုသိုနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Lesoto
Dorerin Naoero: Resoto
Nederlands: Lesotho
नेपाल भाषा: लेसोथो
日本語: レソト
нохчийн: Лесото
Nordfriisk: Lesotho
Norfuk / Pitkern: Lesotho
norsk: Lesotho
norsk nynorsk: Lesotho
Novial: Lesutu
occitan: Lesotho
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲେସୋଥୋ
Oromoo: Leesoottoo
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lesoto
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਿਸੋਥੋ
पालि: लेसोथो
پنجابی: لیسوتھو
Papiamentu: Lesotho
Patois: Lesuoto
Piemontèis: Lesotho
Tok Pisin: Lesoto
Plattdüütsch: Lesotho
polski: Lesotho
português: Lesoto
Qaraqalpaqsha: Lesoto
qırımtatarca: Lesoto
Ripoarisch: Lesotho
română: Lesotho
Runa Simi: Suthusuyu
русский: Лесото
саха тыла: Лесото
संस्कृतम्: लेसोथो
Sängö: Lesôtho
Scots: Lesotho
Seeltersk: Lesoto
Sesotho: Lesotho
Sesotho sa Leboa: Lesotho
Setswana: Lesotho
shqip: Lesoto
sicilianu: Lesothu
Simple English: Lesotho
SiSwati: ÉLusûtfu
slovenčina: Lesotho
slovenščina: Lesoto
ślůnski: Lesotho
Soomaaliga: Lesotho
کوردی: لیسۆتۆ
српски / srpski: Лесото
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Lesoto
Sunda: Lésotho
suomi: Lesotho
svenska: Lesotho
Tagalog: Lesotho
தமிழ்: லெசோத்தோ
татарча/tatarça: Лесото
తెలుగు: లెసోతో
тоҷикӣ: Лесото
Tshivenda: Li-Sotho
Türkçe: Lesotho
Türkmençe: Lesoto
удмурт: Лесото
українська: Лесото
اردو: لیسوتھو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لېسوتو
Vahcuengh: Lesotho
vèneto: Lesotho
vepsän kel’: Lesoto
Tiếng Việt: Lesotho
Volapük: Sutuvän
Võro: Lesotho
文言: 賴索托
Winaray: Lesoto
Wolof: Lesoto
吴语: 萊索托
Xitsonga: Lesotho
ייִדיש: לעסאטא
Yorùbá: Lèsóthò
粵語: 萊索托
Zazaki: Lesoto
Zeêuws: Lesotho
žemaitėška: Lesuots
中文: 莱索托